THE CHANGING POLITICAL LANDSCAPES 1919-64

  • Created by: Ciara_T
  • Created on: 06-04-17 14:49

THE DECLINE OF THE LIBS 1919-64

LIBERAL PROBEMS, WWI

  • conscription, state intervention, longer working hours

PARTY SPLIT

  • 1915, coalition with Cons
  • 1916, LG ousted Asquith

SPLITS POST-WWI

  • Squiffites considered LG a traitor
  • Dec 1918, Coupon Election //  LG PM without a party..

ERRORS MADE BY LF AGTER 1918

  • cash for honours
  • 1922, "warmongering' in Turkey

1918 REP OF THE PEOPLE ACT             // 1922, CON BACKBENCHERS END COALITION

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THE RISE OF LABOUR 1919-31

  • 4% rise of working class vote thanks to franchise
  • Libs errors
  • 1922, Lab become official opposition 142 seats

FIRST LABOUR ADMIN JAN-OCT 1924

although it failed due to 'red scares' and 'betrayal' from TUs, MacDonald demonstrated Labour could govern effectively and responsibly

SECOND LABOUR ADMIN 1929-31

another minority gov; but dominated by economic crisis; unemployment double & foreign investors lose confidence in British economy

// Macdonald entered into a coalition with Tories in 1931 (Nat Gov) this decision split Lab through the 30s

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COALITIONS - LG 1919-22 // NAT GOV 1931-45

LG COALITION 1919-22

LG led the wartime coalition from 1916, he was PM and leader of the libs who supported the coalition; he wasn't the leader of the offiicial Liberal Party

 Cons held most seats among coalition supporters, LG reliant on their support - it could be withdrawn if they wished to form a gov of their own.

DEC (COUPON) 1918: 335 seats Con (coalition)

                                     : 133 seats Lib (coalition)

                                     : 10 seats Lab (coalition)

THE NAT GOV 1931-45

Joined together because of economic crisis, continued till after WWII ; dominated by Cons.

  • bank rate reduced from 6-2% to stimulate recovery // Unemployment Act 1934 // The Special Areas Act 1934 //Public Order Act 1936 
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FAILURE OF EXTREMISM - BUF / COMMUNISTS

Political extremists favoured more radical measures to solve the depression and change British society.

Communist lefts looking for a Russian-style revolution.

Many of the rights supported facism; in 1932 the British Union of Facists (BUF), 50,000 members.

 Reasons for Failure:

  • Nat gov supported by over 50% of the electorate
  • The 1934 Special Areas Act improving areas (inc where CPGB gained support), increasing working class Nat Gov support
  • 1936 Public Order Act, contained
  • Red scares
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STRUCTUAL CHANGES

 REPRESENTATION OF PEOPLE ACT 1918

  • all men over 21
  • women over 30
  • 4% extra working class vote

1928; all women over 21 could vote

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LAB VICTORY OF 1945

LANDSLIDE ELECTION WIN FOR LABOUR

people wanted a change; Labour was that change, the start of the Post-War Consensus and famously; THE WELFARE STATE

  • National Insurance Act 1946
  • The NHS 1948
  • Relative housing improvements (still a shortage)
  • Education from '44 [Butlers]
  • Controversially nationalised industries such as coal mining, ship building and the railways

BUT IT STRUGGLED WITH ECONOMIC ISSUES AT THE COST OF THE WAR ; AUSTERITY CONTINUED UNTIL MID 50s

1951 ELECTION : CONSERVATIVE

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CONS 13 YEARS IN POWER 1951-64

13 YEARS OF GROWING PROSPERITY; CONSENSUS

  • CHURCHILL 51-55
  • EDEN 55-57
  • MACMILLAN 57-63
  • DOUGLAS-HOME 63-64
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