Stakeholder: A person who has an investment, share or interest in a business.
A stakeholder is anyone who:
- Operates the system
- Benefits from the system (function, politics, finances, social benefits)
- Is involved in buying or taking control of the system
- Regulates and takes care of finances, safety and other aspects of the system.
- Opposes the system (negative stakeholders)
- Is responsible for subsystems of the system
Observation - Monitoring a system while it is at work
Focus Group - A group of people/stakeholders are gathered together and questioned on their opinions towards a project or product
Surveys - A data colection used to gather information about individuals
Interview - face to face meeting, consisting of the interviewer asking the interviewee questions that are pertinent to the topic of the interview
Observing the current system - Observing the user's workflow, inputs and outputs can provide info as to how the system works and how it can be improved.
Looking at competitive software - analysing what they have included and to what extent they have an effect on the solution.
Interview users - can get personal feedback and suggestions for improvement, stakeholders will be able to tell you hwat they want to get out of the new system.
System flow charts - displays how data flows in a system and how decisions are made to control ouptut:
- diamonds = decisions
- rectanlges = processes
- rhombus = input/output
- arrrow = data flow direction
Data flow charts - similar to SFCs but do not show decisions (applies to the simbols as well), only data paths, where it is held and where it is processed
Structure charts - shows the breakdown of a system to it's lowest managable modules. Aids programmers in dividing the software into sub problems.
- box = module in the system
- arrow = connection or ownership between modules
Prototype: An original type, form or instance serving as a basis standard for later stages
- The software desinger and implementar can get feedback from users early in the project
- The client and contractor can check if the software made matches the specification set by the client
- The software engineer has insight into the accuracy of initial prohect estimates and whether the deadlines will be met
The process of prototyping:
- Identify basic requirements - incl input and output info required
- Develop initial prototype - includes only user interfaces
- Reviews - customers/end-users examine the prototype and provide feedback
- Revise and enhance prototype - using feedback, specs and product are improved. Scope of contract/product may be negotiated.
- IF chnages are made, REPEAT steps 3 & 4
- finds problems quickly - easy to try it again
- problems which many test users had are noted
- solutions are tested to make sure problems are solved
- finds new usability problems by the new chnaged design
- teaches that continual failure leads to a more successful final product
- can save money
- enables objective assessment of the project's status
- inconsistencies among requirments, design and implementations are detected early
If the requirements of the end user are not met the system will have no purpose.
- lack of feedback during the design process
- lack of stakeholders willing to provide resources
- dissatisfaction from end-users as needs may not be met
In order to meet requirements of the user, the designer must consider these questions in the deisgn stage:
- How much disk storage will the master file consume?
- How many lines of program code will it take to perform this function?
- How can we cut down on CPU time when we run the system?
- What are the most efficient ways of storing this data?
- What database management system should we use?
- Reliability & Integrity - operation of hardware, design of software, accuracy of data or correspondance of data with the real world. Data lacks integrity when it has been changed accidenty or tampered with. Example: info is duplicated in a relational database and only one copy is updated
- Security - protection of hardware, software, machines and networks from unauthorised access. Security measures include restricted access to machines and networks for certain employees to prevent hacking
- Privacy & Anonymity - the ability for individual and groups to determine how when and what info is shared about them with others. Privacy can become anonymity for cyber-bullying & digital criminals.
- Intellectual property - ideas, discoveries, wriitngs, works of art, software, collections and presentations of data. Digital duplication methos undermine protection of intellectual property
- Authenticity - establishing a user's identity beyond resonable doubt, crucial in business & legal matters.
- The digital divide and equality of access - disparities exists between countries & socio-economic groups -> some are left disadvantaged
- Surveillance - Use of IT to monitor the people's actions eg. track/record/assess employee's performance
- Globalisation and culutural diversity - dimishing of geographical, political, economic and cultural boundaries. IT has reduced these boudnaries by making events and people more accessible
- Policies - enforcable measures inteded to promote appropriate use of IT by organisations
- Standards and protocols - technical rules and conventions that enable compatibility & communication between different IT systems
- People and machines - Many jobs don by humans are now done by computer systems. Social impacts such as internet addiction
- Digital citizenship - appropriate behaviour that represents the responsible, ethical and legal approach that indiividuals take in regards to IT. Permeates social & ethical considerations.