Systems Design & Analysis

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1.2.4

Stakeholder: A person who has an investment, share or interest in a business.

A stakeholder is anyone who:

  • Operates the system
  • Benefits from the system (function, politics, finances, social benefits)
  • Is involved in buying or taking control of the system
  • Regulates and takes care of finances, safety and other aspects of the system.
  • Opposes the system (negative stakeholders)
  • Is responsible for subsystems of the system
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1.2.5

Observation - Monitoring a system while it is at work

Focus Group - A group of people/stakeholders are gathered together and questioned on their opinions towards a project or product

Surveys - A data colection used to gather information about individuals

Interview - face to face meeting, consisting of the interviewer asking the interviewee questions that are pertinent to the topic of the interview

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1.2.6

Observing the current system - Observing the user's workflow, inputs and outputs can provide info as to how the system works and how it can be improved.

Looking at competitive software - analysing what they have included and to what extent they have an effect on the solution.

Interview users - can get personal feedback and suggestions for improvement, stakeholders will be able to tell you hwat they want to get out of the new system.

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1.2.7

System flow charts - displays how data flows in a system and how decisions are made to control ouptut:

  • diamonds = decisions
  • rectanlges = processes
  • rhombus = input/output
  • arrrow = data flow direction

Data flow charts - similar to SFCs but do not show decisions (applies to the simbols as well), only data paths, where it is held and where it is processed

Structure charts - shows the breakdown of a system to it's lowest managable modules. Aids programmers in dividing the software into sub problems.

  • box = module in the system
  • arrow = connection or ownership between modules
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1.2.8

Prototype: An original type, form or instance serving as a basis standard for later stages

Benefits:

  • The software desinger and implementar can get feedback from users early in the project
  • The client and contractor can check if the software made matches the specification set by the client
  • The software engineer has insight into the accuracy of initial prohect estimates and whether the deadlines will be met

The process of prototyping:

  1. Identify basic requirements - incl input and output info required
  2. Develop initial prototype - includes only user interfaces
  3. Reviews - customers/end-users examine the prototype and provide feedback
  4. Revise and enhance prototype - using feedback, specs and product are improved. Scope of contract/product may be negotiated.
  5. IF chnages are made, REPEAT steps  3 & 4
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1.2.9

  • finds problems quickly - easy to try it again
  • problems which many test users had are noted
  • solutions are tested to make sure problems are solved
  • finds new usability problems by the new chnaged design
  • teaches that continual failure leads to a more successful final product
  • can save money
  • enables objective assessment of the project's status
  • inconsistencies among requirments, design and implementations are detected early
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1.2.10

If the requirements of the end user are not met the system will have no purpose.

Conseuquences:

  • lack of feedback during the design process
  • lack of stakeholders willing to provide resources
  • dissatisfaction from end-users as needs may not be met

In order to meet requirements of the user, the designer must consider these questions in the deisgn stage:

  • How much disk storage will the master file consume?
  • How many lines of program code will it take to perform this function?
  • How can we cut down on CPU time when we run the system?
  • What are the most efficient ways of storing this data?
  • What database management system should we use?
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1.2.11

  • Reliability & Integrity - operation of hardware, design of software, accuracy of data or correspondance of data with the real world. Data lacks integrity when it has been changed accidenty or tampered with. Example: info is duplicated in a relational database and only one copy is updated
  • Security - protection of hardware, software, machines and networks from unauthorised access. Security measures include restricted access to machines and networks for certain employees to prevent hacking
  • Privacy & Anonymity - the ability for individual and groups to determine how when and what info is shared about them with others. Privacy can become anonymity for cyber-bullying & digital criminals.
  • Intellectual property - ideas, discoveries, wriitngs, works of art, software, collections and presentations of data. Digital duplication methos undermine protection of intellectual property
  • Authenticity - establishing a user's identity beyond resonable doubt, crucial in business & legal matters.
  • The digital divide and equality of access - disparities exists between countries & socio-economic groups -> some are left disadvantaged
  • Surveillance - Use of IT to monitor the people's actions eg. track/record/assess employee's performance
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1.2.11 Continued

  • Globalisation and culutural diversity - dimishing of geographical, political, economic and cultural boundaries. IT has reduced these boudnaries by making events and people more accessible
  • Policies - enforcable measures inteded to promote appropriate use of IT by organisations
  • Standards and protocols - technical rules and conventions that enable compatibility & communication between different IT systems
  • People and machines - Many jobs don by humans are now done by computer systems. Social impacts such as internet addiction
  • Digital citizenship - appropriate behaviour that represents the responsible, ethical and legal approach that indiividuals take in regards to IT. Permeates social & ethical considerations.
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