Successes of the Liberal Reforms

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Intro

Run by Liberals.

Had been a laissez-fair state.

Poverty was a result of laziness.

Changes had to be made to improve the welfare of the people to improve the army and the workforce.

Liberals had to please the people to stay in power. 30% in poverty.

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The Young

Before

  • Education - it was lacking. Those who did go to school werent taught well enough.
  • Death - very high infant mortality rate. 13 out of 100 babies died before they were 1.

Changes

  • Education Act 1906 - Local councils were given the power to give needy children free meals.
  • Education Act 1907 - Children who attended school had to undergo compulsory medical exams.
  • 1908 Children's Act - Prevented abuse by parents and restricted the sale of **** to under 16s.

Success?

  • Education Act 1906  - Only 1/3 of schools provided free meals by 1911.
  • Education Act 1907 - Medical problem's identified weren't addressed.
  • 1908 Children's Act - Stopped unnecessary harm and minimalised cigarette smoking.
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The Working

Before

  • Wages - They worked very long hours for very little pay.
  • Injury - There was no compensation for injuries sustained while working.

Changes

  • 1906 Workmans Compensation Act - 6 million more workers could now claim compensation for work related injury and illness.
  • Miners - Miners secured an 8 hour working day in 1908
  • 1909 Trade Boards Act - Tried to introduce a minimum wage.
  • 1911 Shops Act - Gave shop owners half a days holiday per week.

Success?

  • Workers Compensation Act - Not effective, as workers could not afford to go to court and prove their injuries.
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The Sick

Before

  • Illness - There was no support for workers if they fell ill and couldnt work, this affected families.

Changes

  • National Insurance Act 1911 (part 1) - Provided compulsory health insurance for workers earning under £160 P/A. The worker got paid 4d, the employer 3d and the state 2d. This gave them free medical treatment and maternity benefits of 30d. AN injured worker got 10d per week of sick benefit.

Success?

  • Only for workers - The insurance only covered the worker, not his family.
  • Medical treatment - Medical treatment was still expensive for families
  • Benefits - The benefits was not enough to live off. They needed 21d, they got 10d.
  • Money - The money they got was better than no money at all - less chance of death.
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The Unemployed

Before

  • Income - Workers had no income when unemployed.
  • Starvation - Their families starved.
  • Workhouse - They faced the prospect of the workhouse.

Changes

  • 1909 Labour Exchanged Act - Created easily accessible job centres
  • 1911 National Insurance Act (Part 2) - Created a scheme of unemployment benefits for workers in trades that were frequently hit by unemployment

Success

  • Money - Workers got 7d per week if they were unemployed
  • Time - Lasted only 15 weeks.
  • Mass - Only covered 2.3 million workers.
  • Seasonal - Didn't cover seasonal unemployment.
  • War - Scheme fell apart after the war due to mass unemployment.
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The Old

Before

  • Old - There was no support for people of old age. They had no form of income.

Changes

  • Benefits - They were granted 5d a week if they were over 70.
  • Couples - A married couple got 15d.
  • Pension - Thei pension was non-contributory and completely government funded.
  • Bad people - Criminals and drunks were not allowed a pension.

Success?

  • Popular - was seen as the most popular act introduced by the Liberals.
  • Security - For the first time ever, the state was offering security.
  • Younger - Was meant to be given to 65s but was too expensive.
  • Not enough - Rowntree said that 7d was needed to keep a pensioner out of poverty.
  • Life expectancy - Life expectancy was only 64, so most people didn't get their pensions.
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