Stuart Britain

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Charles I Personal Rule - Scotland

Bishops War

  • Scots opposing Charles' imposition of Laudiansim
  • Allowed Scots to call religious Assembly 1638
  • Proceed to annual canon laws & abolish episcopacy

Covenanters - did not trust Charles = kept army reduced amount of royal power in Scotland

  • C1's position changed
  • 1637 - armed themselves when asked to read LPB

Treaty of Ripon

  • Agreed to Pay living costs of Scottish Army / Charles called for another Parliament

Charles - would not back down in response to October revolt / Moderates = radicals

Scottish petition movement - SNC = radical Presbyterians = manifesto to unite people against Charles

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Charles I Personal Rule - Fiscal Feudalism

Fiscal Feudalism

  • Monopolies allowed grants to corporations £33,000
  • Forest Fines
  • Land fines
  • Recusancy fines =income increased from £5300 - £26866
  • Customs duties = tonnage & poundage granted for 1 year - C1 continued to collect it
  • Distraint of Knighthood = land owning income £40 per year
  • Those who had not seen / received a KH a coronation = fined
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Charles I Personal Rule - Ireland

Ireland

  • 1629 - politically divided
  • Policy of plantation - land taken by English crown & given to English settlers
  • Laudiansim is seen as too close to Catholicism
  • Threatened Protestants
  • 1637 Scottish Rebellion - prompted Irish Catholics to act

Thomas Wentworth 1632

  • Increasing customs duty to allow English Crown to gain profit
  • Advised Charles to call a short Parliament
  • Suceeded in enhancing authority of English Crown & Church over Irish
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Charles Personal Rule - Opposition in England

Announcement of illegality of ship money = won over the Commons

Long term solution could only be achieved if Charles made concessions with Parliament

Charles' decision to face Scots without Parliament = tensions & development of CW

  • Unity about ending abuses of PR
  • Judgement for crown by narrow majority = politically costly for Charles

Hampden Case 1637

  • Refusal to pay ship money
  • Closely connected with those who oppose Charles' regime
  • Prosecution would make a point that authority should be obeyed
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Financial Weaknesses of the Crown

Charles' Anti-Spanish Policy

  • Financial support for Protestant Dutch
  • Naval Attack on Spain aimed at capturing their shipments of gold from SA
  • Had to resort to other prerogative methods
  • Financial support for Christian IV of Denmark to attack Catholics through northern Germany
  • Granted customs tax for 1 year only

Raising Prerogative Income worried PN

  • Greater possiblity of monarch becoming indepedent & politically absolutist
  • Court spending at a double than before
  • Difficult for crown to govern efficiently = conduct an aggressive FP
  • Dependent on PN for substantial funds
  • James' extravagance - political problem
  • 3 subsidies £44,000  - 3 Scottish friends
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Financial Weaknesses of the Crown

  • TYW = called on Parliament for subsidies & war broke out between Charles & Parliament
  • Financial weaknesses threatened to become a political problem - FEB 1611 - James dissolved Parliament
  • MPs were reluctant to give reform that was needed
  • Positive Patronage = crucial to political system

Failure to reform finances in E's reign led to inflation & crowns finances growing

  • Bad Harvests 1623 & 1624 = weakened crowns finances
  • Not enough money raised & damaged rep of crown (Cockayne Project failed to help crowns finances)
  • 1603 - crown still in debt
  • 1604 - Treaty of London - peace with Spain reduced Crown's expediture
  • 1610 Contract collapsed & Crown & Parliament distrusted eachother
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Issues In 1621

Religion

  • MPs - unsettled with becoming at peace with Spain
  • Dawry
  • TYW - Protestants & Catholics = series of wars = religious divide

Finance

  • England = not trading well with partners
  • Monopolies = exploited by many courtiers = to attack eachother
  • Politics = indication about factional fighting
  • Statute of monopolies = limited the crowns right to grant monopolies
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Issues in 1621

Favourites

  • Buckngham, Cranfield, Coke

Foreign Policy

  • Failure of Madrid Trip 1624 - MPs were reluctant to give funds
  • Monarchs prerogative - Parliament have no right to discuss it
  • J1 = implied MPs talked about FP to frighten Spanish
  • Spanish Match - anti Spanish sentiment from Parliament
  • Prince Charles & Buckingham involvement = converted to anti-spanish policy & led to start of Anglo-Spanish War
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Main Parliamentary Grievances

Taxation

  • FP failure Cadiz
  • MPs = concerned with illegality of extra parliamentary taxation
  • Charles asking for more & more money

FKC

  • 76 people imprisoned for refusal to pay forced loan
  • Judgement not general right
  • JE - TOL = considered to create a Bill of Rights
  • Upheld Charles' prerogative
  • General had to falsify the records to state King had general right
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Main Parliamentary Grievances

Martial Law

  • To stop soldiers from being billeted in the South West
  • Overruled all other laws
  • Too much absolutism for gentry

Billeting

  • Civillians = house & feed soldiers meant to get paid
  • Troops raised for war in Europe - billeted with local popualtion
  • 'Free quarter'
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Attempts to Strengthen Crown's Finances

Great Contract 1610

  • Cecil negotiating with parliament - reform of parliaments
  • Crown debt = £280,000 & annual expenditure £511,000

Book of Rates

  • Official valuations of those items on which customs duties should be paid

Sought annual subsidy - £200,000 in exchange for feudal rights

  • James would give up prerogative income from wardship
  • Parliament prorogued for the summer

Feudal System of Rule

  • From 1066 , Monarchs had the right to grant land to members of the PN
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Attempts to Strengthen Crown's Finances

Robert Cecil sought to increase income & cut James' spending

James agreement 1608 - 1609 = did not keep

Crown had right to levy impositions = source of revenue & means of regulating trade

Impositions - 1606 court judgement declaring crown had absolute prerogative to issue important issues

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Monarchs & Parliaments

Character of James I

  • Believed in his importance
  • Views on monarchy brought him into conflict with Parliament
  • Firm belief of divine right of kings
  • Interest in new concepts about mental & physical diseases
  • Affected by early years as a boy Scotland
  • Rough hawn manner & natural paranoia
  • Guarded manner - parents were killed
  • Believed kings took authority from God
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Character of Charles I

  • Good linguistic & a sensitive man of refined tastes
  • Power - confined to king & not shared out between others
  • Tensions between king & parliament
  • Spent alot on the arts = Van Dyk & Rubens
  • Reserved self righteous = concept for royal authority (DROK)
  • DROK - order could be achieved by the king acting out a role
  • Reform of royal court =  create an ideal society for subjects to emulate (conform to clear ideals)
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Courts

  • James = politically skillful & court = open & lively
  • Early dominance of bed chamber by the scots
  • Model for what could be achieved
  • Charles - politically shy & court = microcosm of miniature version of his state

Personalities

  • Both believers in the divine right to rule
  • James = intellectual, enjoyed debate & dealing with the people = pragmatic
  • James = outgoing, effectionate & talkative
  • Charles = painfully shy, aloof, quiet & cold

Interests

  • James = more intellectual whereas Charles enjoyed the arts
  • Duke of Buckingham
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Powers of the Monarch

  • Almost absolutist
  • Top of the hierarchy
  • Power over foreign diplomacy
  • Legislation = right to call & dissolve parliament
  • Commander-in-chief of military
  • Head of PN

LImitations of Monarch

  • Limits on monarchs income
  • Relied on justices of peace
  • Funds had to go through parliament
  • Need of PN
  • Parliament had to grant subsidies for the monarch - control of financial resources
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James I's Parliament

Hampton Court Conference

  • 1604
  • Response to the millenary petition
  • No bishop no king = James mistakenly thought puritan Reynolds advocated abolition of episcopacy
  • Many believed James was hostile to Puritans
  • Religious conference
  • KJB

Shirley's Case

  • 1604
  • Shirley arrested for debt
  • Arrest upset MP's
  • Royal prerogative vs Parliamentary power
  • Keen to establish parliamentary power of freedom
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Bancfrofts Canons

  • September 1604
  • Gov - full support of church laws
  • Church laws upheld many orthodox doctrines & litergies
  • Condemned by Puritans in P

Parliamentary Privilege

  • Legal immunity enjoyed by members of parliament that allows them to freely speak during proceedings
  • Parliament can function effectively
  • James can exploit powers by controlling parliament
  • No fear of legal action - raising controversial questions & debates
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Monarchs & Parliaments

Buckinghamshire Election

  • 1604
  • Goodwin
  • James = commons were acting illegally in allowing an outlaw to sit as an MP
  • Matter of constitutional dispute over balance between parliamentary privilege & prerogative

Favourites

  • MPs focused on abuse of monopolies as a means to attack Buckingham
  • Encouraged  parliament to impeach Bacon
  • Exploited by many courtiers Coke, Bacon & Cranfield
  • Monopolies = indication of factional fighting

Addled Parliament - 1614

  • Lasted no more than 8 weeks as called on parliament for funds
  • Factional conflict & emergence of competing groups
  • Financial need after death of Cecil
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Outbreak of Civil War

Five Members Coup - Jan 1642

  • Announced impeachement of Pym, Hampden
  • Demonstration against Charles
  • Led to physical division of Crown & parliament = conflict
  • Coup strengthened parliamentary radicals
  • Lords accepted commons vote of impeachement - loss of significant royalist support

Exclusion Bill

  • Popular support encouraged by petitioning & campaigning
  • Pressure of London Crowd lessened the influence of King on Parliament
  • February 1642  
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Outbreak of Civil War

Militia Ordinance - Feb 1642

  • Parliament able to assume control of the armed forces
  • Able to do appointing without royal assent
  • Appointed lord lieutenants & their deputies by authority of parliament

Commissions of Array

  • Response to MO & led to conflict from radicals on both sides
  • Charles used prerogative powers to raise armed forces
  • Sent to counties = meant they were authorised to raise forces for the crown

Nineteen Preositions - June 1642

  • Stated Parliaments demands for a negotiated settlement
  • 5 MP's to be pardoned e.g. FMC
  • Answer to this was written on behalf of the king
  • C1 had to accept TA & MO
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First Civil War

Pym Reforms

  • Parliament - combined executive with representative authority & developed methods for running country without king - creating new structures
  • Persuaded members to accept a formal alliance with the solemn league & covenanters
  • 21,000 men sent to England to help parliament

Control of Navy

  • Parliament are able to supply forces
  • Prevents Charles from receiving supplies

New Model Army

  • Regularly trained, paid & experienced soldiers = never to be defeated
  • Civil war became war of attrition ( armies gradually wear down eachothers strengths)
  • Motivated by Puritan religion
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First Civil War

Parliamentary Control of London

  • Administration - took advantage of an already established centre of admin
  • Propaganda & finances -parliament have access to resources & have more support
  • Port = London industry & chief industrial centre
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First Civil War

Reasons for defeat due to Charles

Charles' leadership

  • indicisive in following through on initial promises at start of the war

Court divisions

  • Differing viwes e.g. Hyde as he advised continuing attempts to settle with parliament
  • HM= counselled a continued war until total victory was achieved

Charles - poor military leader by appointing himself commander-in-chief

  • He did not listen to or act on best advice
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First Civil War

Reasons for defeat due to Charles

COW Oxford

  • Oxford suffered from limited authority with royalist commanders
  • COWB - set up by Charles which removed capable men from the COWO
  • Charles - wasn't able to communicate with relevant people & did not listen to COW

Reliance on Foreign Aid

  • Use of Rupert & Maurice left him open to attack
  • Negotiating with France & Pope = propaganda for parliament which was published in the Kings cabinet opened

Earl of Newcastle

  • Did not march his northern royalist army to support London attack 1643
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Revolution 1629-49

Nineteen Prepositions challenged authority

  • Parliament raises army so charles cannot use army against them
  • Parliament - raise children so their is no catholic heir
  • Church reform = no Laudianism = no absolutism & personal rule
  • Offspring cannot get married unless they have parliamentary permission
  • Laws enforced against catholics = eradication of Protestants

Growth of Opposition

  • London Crowd = used by radical MPs e.g. Pym to put pressure on the Lords to exclude Bishops
  • Such a threat that C1 feared his and his family safety
  • London Crowd came out to defend the TOL in 1641
  • Becoming more & more involved in politics
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Revolution 1629-49

Pym

Methods

  • Using parliamentary committees to steer parliament towards settlement
  • Impeachment of Wentworth & Laud
  • Supporting Bedfords bridge appointments scheme
  • Formation of working alliance with Scottish Covenanters
  • Using parliamentary financial pressures to control Charles' political options
  • Getting parliament to transfer to itself some key pp

King Pym - indication of prominence & for public & Westminster

  • Pyms junto - Pym & allies had become new ruling power
  • Visible & vocal face of increasingly radical attack on C1
  • Symbol as how Parliament became more of a threat to moderates than C1
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Revolution 1629-49

Interdependence

  • Billiard ball effect
  • Parliament were divided over whether Charles could be trusted or not
  • Cause & effect
  • Rebellion - prompted by events in Scotland & Ireland
  • Radicalised situationin England

Irish Rebellion 1641-42

  • Catholicism fear = protestant English
  • Massacre = supposed plan Wentworth would bring English army
  • Politicians may become radicalised & determined to avenge protestant massacre

Radicalisation affected development of support for monarchy from moderate MPs

Treaty of Ripon led to Irish Rebellion

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