James I comes to the throne

Introduction to James I and Puritans in 1603 - AS level History AQA

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  • Created by: Clodagh
  • Created on: 21-04-13 10:59
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  • James I
    • Background
      • His mother was Mary Queen of Scots
      • Lord Darnley, Mary's cousin, was James' father - he was born in 1566
      • He was crowned James IV of Scotland aged 13 months
      • Scotland had to be governed by regents until 1580 because James was too young to rule
      • He came across as rude, unhygienic and lazy - hunting was his main priority
    • Britain in 1603
      • As Elizabeth had no direct heir to the throne, James had to come down from Scotland and govern both countries
      • England and Scotland were two separate kingdoms
        • Wales had been conquered and united by Henry VII and Ireland had also been conquered too
        • Scotland didn't unite until 1707 under the rule of Anne, despite James' proposed union
      • James wanted a common coinage, free trade and a new flag called the Union Jack
        • Everyone was made British through naturalisation so people didn't feel different from each other
      • James proclaimed himself as King of Great Britain in 1604
      • Power passes through the family and as the tudors and stuarts were linked by blood, it made sense to unite the kingdoms
      • James believed God intended a merge of churches as there were no barriers between kingdoms
        • Scots were Presbyterian and didn't want bishops in the churches anymore, unlike the English
    • Religion
      • The European Reformation
        • Christianity had reverted from extreme Catholicism to Protestantism after Martin Luther questioned the authority of the church
        • The end of the 16th century saw a division in Europe by Catholics and Protestants
        • Martin Luther had produced the Ninety-five theses
      • The Effects of the Reformation in Britain
        • Henry VIII
          • He gave the instruction of dissolution of the monastries
          • He would become Supreme Head of the Church of England
          • As a consequence of rejecting the authority of the pope, England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church
        • Edward VI
          • He was responsible for a determined attempt at introducing a full Protestant church and stripping of the Catholic church
        • Mary I
          • She reversed religion back to Catholicism in England because of her loyalty to the pope
        • Elizabeth I
          • She restored church articles including the "Common Book of Prayer"
          • She persecuted Puritans who didn't agree with her and stopped all ideas of reformation
      • The Beliefs of Puritans
        • Extreme Protestants believed that there should be no ceremonies, just congregations praying together with a preacher. They saw the pope as an "anti-christ"
        • Their aim was to see an end to anything that could be seen as Catholic e.g bishops
      • Puritanism
        • Puritanism could be found in all social classes, although mainly in middle classes
          • Leading courtiers of Elizabeth's reign were strong Puritans, but this was less fashionable at court in James' reign
        • It was strongest in London and East Anglia as well as Gloucester. It was weaker in areas in the countryside including Devon, Cornwall and Somerset

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