Cause of stress: Johansson
Aim: measure the psychological and physiological stress response
Method: quasi experiment, independent design measures using 24 Swedish sawmill participants, 14 finishers and 10 cleaners. Finishers job repetitive, lack of control of time, non social and wages depend on them. Cleaners more control on task and time, socialize more. given questionnaires of mood,nicotine and caffeine and rating scale of words such as "well-being". he took urine sample from them measure hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline on off days and work day. recorded number of absents and illness.
Findings: higher levels of hormones reported on work days than off days and levels increase through the day. higher levels of hormones than control group of cleaners. reported low on well being than control group. higher reports of absenteeism and illness such as headaches in finishers than control group.
Conclusion: work stressors such as repetitiveness, high levels of responsibility lead to physiological arousal. this then leads to stress-related illness and absenteeism.
Cause of stress: Kanner
Aim: compare hassles and uplifts scale and the Berkman life event scale as predictors of stress related symptoms.
Method: longitudinal study, 100 middle ages, mainly white protestants in CA. repeated designs completed both self reports.all est sent out a month before the study, fill out hassle scale every month for 9 months same with Hopkins symptoms checklist and then Life events after 10 months. 9 subjects dropped out.
Findings: Hassles scale was a better predictor of symptoms than Life Event scale. Hassles seemed to be consistent month on month. Life events for men correlated positively with hassles and negatively with uplifts. In women more life events more hassles and uplifts reported. Hassles positive correlation with illness, more hassles more illness reported.
Conclusion: assessment of daily hassles and uplifts is a better predictor of stress related illness and health than life events scale.
Cause of stress: Geer and Maisel
Aim: investigate if perceived control or actual control can reduce stress reactions to stimulus of car crash victims.
Method: lab experiment, 60 psychology undergraduates from NY uni. Independent design randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions. Stress levels measured using galvanic skin response(sweat produced) and ECG ( heart rate). group 1 given a button that they could push and got rid of photo, told a tone would precede each new image. Group 2, 60 second apart, 35 second long and warning tone would precede each photo. Group 3 told time to time see photos and hear tones. Each participant seat wired up to machines collect baseline measurements.the GSR taken on tone.
Findings: ECG discarded as inaccurate, group 1 was the least stressed and group 2 was more stressed produced more sweat on GSR.
Conclusion: that having control over your environment can reduce stress responses
Measuring stress: Homes and Rahe
Aim: creating a method that estimates the extent to which life events are stressors
Method: correlation, independent measure design, questionnaire how much each life event was considered a stressor by 394 participants from different education,races and religions. rate 43 life events put together from examining 5000 medical records.told that marriage was given arbitrary value of 50.they hen had to give a value to other life events in correlation to marriage. period e.g. 12 months then add up mean values associated with life events.
Findings: most life events judged less than marriage but 6 like death of spouse or family member, divorce. people with high LCU scores for preceding year were likely to experience some sort of illness the following year.correlation between groups were tested found to be igh except one group. males and females agree and different backgrounds agreed.less correlation between black and white.
Conclusion: the events chosen are mostly ordinary..some ex like going to jail western thing.
Techniques for Managing stress: Meichenbaum
Aim: compare standard desensitised methods with SIT
Method: field experiment, 21 students responded to advert about treatment of test anxiety. 3 conditions, standard, cognitive therapy and control group. Given questionnaires about test anxiety grade average before and after, blind didn't know what experiment they were in, matched pairs and randomly allocated. SIT given 8 therapy session and some positive statement and relaxation techniques. desensitization given 8 therapy sessions in relaxation, imagery of stressful situation and control told they were on waiting list.
Findings: both therapy treatment showed more improvement than control group, SIT group improved the most.
Conclusion: SIT is an effective way of reducing anxiety in students than just simple behavioural techniques more effective with cognition added.
Techniques for Managing stress: Budzynski
Aim: biofeedback technique work in reducing tension headaches
Method: lab experiment 18 participants who replied to newspaper advert USA. data collected by muscle tension measurement (EMG) and psychometric test for depression, asked to complete questionnaire about headaches. Independent measures design randomly assigned to either conditions.
group 1: given biofeedback training with relaxation using the EMG
group 2: had biofeedback training but with false feedback (pseudo) group 3 control group. diary of their headaches rating 0-5 (0 mild and 5 serve) group a&b told to practise relaxation techniques for 10-15 mins.
Findings: after 3 months group A muscle tension lower than other two groups. After 18 months 4 contacted, 3 reported low tension headaches and the other some reduction
Conclusion: biofeedback is effective method of stress management.
Techniques for Managing stress: Waxler-Morrison
Aim: social relationships influence her response to breast cancer and survival
Method: quasi experiment, using questionnaires and some 18 interviews plus examination records. 133 women under 55 clinic in Vancouver sent questionnaires to gather information about; responsibilities for e.g. children, contact with friends or family, perception of support from others. Psychometric test of social networks that combined martial status,contact with friend ans family.Details of diagnosis were taken, survival and recurrence were checked in their medical records.
Findings: 6 aspects of social networks were significantly linked these were; marital status,support from friends and contact with them,social network and employment support. from interview gathered qualitative data that practical help e.g. childcare aspect of support.
Conclusion: the more social networks and support the higher the survival rate of women with breast cancer.