Stress

Stress

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 08-06-12 10:43

Stress - Causes of Stress

Johansson - Stress (Causes of Stress)

Johansson measured the psychological and physiological stress response in 2 categories of employees. 24 workers in a Swedish saw mill. High risk group were 14 workers who had to work a high set pace job and got paid for how they performed and they were compared with 10 cleaners. Baseline measurements were taken at the same time on a day when the workers were at home. They gave a urine sample four times a day and completed a self report. In self report the high risk group felt more rushed and irritated. The repetitive, machine paced work which was demanding in attention to detail and highly mechanised, contributed to the higher stress levels in the higher risk group.

1 of 9

Stress - Causes of Stress

Kanner - Stress (Causes of Stress)

Kanner compared the Hassles and Uplifts scale and the Berkman life events scale as predictors of psychological symptoms of stress. A repeated measures design as both participants completed the HUS and the BLES. 100 mainly white protestants from California. They found hassles were consistent from month to month. Life events for men correlated positively with hassles and negatively with uplifts. Therefore the more life events, the more hassles and less uplifts. Hassles are a more powerful predictor of psychological symptoms than life events. 

2 of 9

Stress - Causes of Stress

Geer & Maisel - Stress (Causes of Stress)

They aimed to see if percieved control or actual control can reduce stress reactions. Lab experiment in which participants were shown photographs of dead car crash victims and their stress levels were measured through their GSR and heart rate. 60 psychology students took part. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions. Group 1 were warned when an image was coming and could control to terminate the photo. Group 2 were warned an image was coming but had no control over terminating it. Group 3 had no control and no predicting when the images were coming. They found that Group 2 were most stressed as they knew when the image was coming and could not stop it and Group 1 experienced the least stress. Therefore it suggests that being able to terminate stressful stimulus reduces the stressful impact.

3 of 9

Stress - Measuring Stress

Geer & Maisel - Stress (Measuring Stress)

In Geer and Maisel's study the participants stress levels were measured by GSR and heart rate electrodes. The data was converted from a voltmeter to a print out. Each recording was performed in a sound and electronically sheilded room to ensure no audio or visual input from the projector would interfere with the data collection. The heart rate monitors were attached in standard positions, and the GSR electrodes were places between the palm and forearm of the participants non-preferred aim (the left arm for right handed people). 

4 of 9

Stress - Measuring Stress

Kanner - Stress (Measuring Stress)

Kanner used a self report to compare the hassles and uplifts scale and the Berkman life events scale as predictors of psychological symptoms of stress. Each participant completed the HUS and the BLES. They then assessed their psychological symptoms of stress using the Hopkins symptoms check list and the Bradburn Morale scale. Hassles was completed every month for 9 months and life events after 9 months. Results showed hassles are more powerful predictors of psychological symptoms than life events.

5 of 9

Stress - Measuring Stress

Johansson - Stress (Measuring Stress)

Johansson measured the psychological and physiological stress response in 2 categories of employees. Data was collected through physiological measures of chemicals in the workers urine and a self report of the workers moods. Each participant gave a urine sample four times a day. They gave a self report of their mood and alertness as well as their caffeine and nicotine consumption. The self report showed the high risk group felt more rushed and irritated. The urine samples showed that the repetitive, machine paced work which was demanding in attention to detail and highly mechanised, contributed to the higher stress levels in the higher risk group.

6 of 9

Stress - Managing Stress

Michenbaum - Stress (Managing Stress)

To compare stress inoculation therapy with systematic desensitisation and a control group who were on a waiting list for treatment. It was a field experiment with participants on a waiting list. Patients were assessed before and after using self report and grades from exams. 21 students aged 17-25 responded to advertisement for treatment for test anxiety. Matched pairs design with a random allocation to groups. Gender and anxiety levels balanced in each group. SIT and SD had 8 sessions and control group on waiting list. They found performance on the tests improved in the SIT group compared with the other two groups but difference between both groups and the control group. Therefore SIT is a more effective way of reducing anxiety than other treatments.

7 of 9

Stress - Managing Stress

Budzynski - Stress (Managing Stress)

They aimed to see if biofeedback was an effective way of reducing tension headaches. 18 participants from Colorado who replied to an advertisement. Medical assessment to check no other reasons for the headaches. Independent measures, allocated into 3 groups: group A feedback sessions, group B fake feedback sessions, group C on a waiting list. They found bio feedback is an effective way of training patients to relax and reduce their tension headaches so can be seen as an effective method of stress management. Group B were given proper sessions after the study ended.

8 of 9

Stress - Managing Stress

Waxler Morrison - Stress (Managing Stress)

To investigate how a woman's social relationships influences her response to breast cancer and survival. 133 participants under 55 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer, all female. Quasi experiment with data collected via interviews, questionnaires, and medical records. They looked at social networks, marital status, contact with friends and family, church membership, perception of support and then the length of survival and re-occurrence rate. They found supportive husbands, support and contact with friends, employment and support help were significantly linked with survival. Therefore good social networks and support reduce stress for women with breast cancer and reduction in stress can prolong their survival after diagnosis. However the main influence is cancer survival is the state of the cancer when a diagnosis is made.

9 of 9

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Stress resources »