Strategies for Memory Improvement

  • Created by: Beth_Gee
  • Created on: 12-04-14 16:47

Useful Research

Concrete/Abstract Words (Paivio 1969)

Concrete words - easily invoke mental image e.g pen are easier to recall from the LTM than abstract words e.g however

Dual Coding hypothesis (Paivio 1971)

Suggest that words anf mages are processed seperately, concrete are encoded twice, word and then image so more likely to remember --> predicted existence of visuo-spacial sketch pad and pholological loop of the Working Memory Model 

Organisation (Tulving and  Pearlstone 1966)

More material is organised (either in categories or by the participant) the easier it is to learn "To organise is to memorise" Mandler (1967)

Context-Dependant Memory

External Cues - Baddeley and Godden - diver study

Internal Cues -Goodwin et al (1969) Mood as a context

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Research continued...

Encoding Specificity Principle (Tulving anf Thompson 1973) 

Stated that when we aquire a memory, it's encoding with links to the context wich exsisted at the time. This context becomes a retrieval cue to aid recall of info in LTM --> Links to the CI and Witness Testimony

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Method of Loci

  • A familiar route
  • Encodes LTM-->WMM (VSSP): Visualise items to be remembered on route (silly/draft = good)
  • Retrieve - go round the route again, places act as a cue for items
  • Good for remember items is order + "concrete words"
  • Bad for abstract words and concepts, needs many different routes to avoid interference
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Mind Map/Spider Diagram

  • Main topics/sub topics
  • Encodes through deep processing (semantic)
  • Visualise the diagram, key words act as a trigger
  • Good for anything
  • Bad for time consuming sometimes, hard to remember, hard to condense info
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  • Sentence e.g Every Good Boy Deserves Food
  • Encode by making up a sentence
  • Retrieve; say the sentence - first letter = trigger
  • Good for orders, any topic, snappy, doesn't need vowels
  • Bad for limitations (goes for all of the strategies)
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  • Word e.g GRIT, G roup R ange I ndication T ype of fire
  • Encoded by letters give th inital letters of words to remember 
  • Retrieve by thinking of the word
  • Good for orders, any topic, not much to remember
  • Bad for vowels need to work
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