First 394 words of the document:
Memory Improvement Strategies
One strategy for memory improvement is to The outlined memory strategies have a
put words into groups which have theoretical support from what we know
hierarchies of meaning. So for example a list about the working of long term memory.
of animal types and specific animals could be This is that long term memory works by
headed `mammals', followed by `dogs', making links between the items it holds.
followed by `collies', `terriers' and Both the strategies outlined work by forming
`labradors'. such links.
In an experiment, Bower found that Studies such as those of Bower are
participants who were given a set of words laboratory based. Laboratory studies in
to memorise in the form of a structured memory are often criticised for involving
hierarchy had far better recall than memory tasks that lack ecological validity,
participants who were given the same set of but as memory strategies are often about
words in a random order. recall of lists, this criticism does not apply
nearly so much here. So the results of the
Another memory improvement technique is supportive studies can be seen as reliable
the use of visualisation. For example, pointsand valid.
for speech can be remembered in order by ]
associated each one with a strong visual Memory strategies have had a very large
image of a journey through a house: throughsuccessful application. For example, the
the front door, through the hall, up the stairs widespread use of mind mapping techniques
and into the bedroom. such as spider diagrams are in effect based
on the hierarchical memory technique.
Another study by Bower supported
visualisation as a way of improving recall. Another strength is the difference between
Participants who were asked to make an the memory strategies outlined. Some
imaginary visual link between two words had people are known to have a more visual
a much better recall of the second word method of learning and can use the visual
when given the first compared to participants imagery technique, but others work better
who were not asked to make a visual link. with just the written word and they can use
methods such as the hierarchical technique.