Stalin's Dictatorship - Reasons for Total Power

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Cult of Personality

STALINS CONTROL OF ARTS, RELIGION AND EDUCATION AND USE OF PROPAGANDA TO PRESENT SELF IN FAVOURABLE LIGHT

EDUCATION - INTRODUCED STANDARD TEXTBOOKS 

  • MADE SURE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION SEEN AS SUCCESS OF COUNTRY
  • GAVE HIMSELF MORE ACTIVE ROLE IN IT
  • NEXT GENERATION WOULD GROW UP LEARNING TO WORSHIP STALIN AND HIS ACHEIVEMENTS

EDUCATION - CHILDREN'S CLUBS

  • TAUGHT ABOUT COMMUNISM AND STALIN - MADE TO SUPPORT IT

ARTS - STRICT SENSORSHIP OF BOOKS AND MEDIA

  • ANY WORK SEEN TO OPPOSE GOVERNENT NOT PUBLISHED - WRITER MOST LIKELY SENT TO LABOUR CAMP
  • ARTIST TOLD TO PRODUCE WORK WHICH CELEBRATED BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION
  • MANY KILLED SELF BECAUSE OF STRICTNESS OF RESTRICTIONS
  • ENSURED NO PROTEST MADE AGAINST COMMUNISM AND STALIN - PEOPLE FORCED TO SUPPORT IT
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Cult of Personality

RELIGION - CULT OF STALIN

  • SHUT DOWN 40,000 CHURCHES, 25,000 MOSQUES, ARRESTED BISHOPS
  • ANY FORM OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP NOT ALLOWED - PEOPLE ENCOURAGED TO WORSHIP THEIR GREAT LEADER - CULT OF STALIN
  • MADE SURE NO ONE HAD ANY IDOL APART FROM STALIN - MOST IMPORTANT AND POWERFUL FIGURE IN USSR

MADE SURE THAT COUNTRY WORSHIPPED HIM - NO ONE DARED TO OPPOSE HIM OR ATTEMPT TO TAKE POWER OUT OF HIS HANDS

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Control of Government

INTRODUCTION OF 1936 CONSTITUTION

  • CHANGED NAME OF CENTERAL EXECUTIVE COMITTEE TO 'SUPREME SOVIET'
  • EMPOWERED TO SET UP COMMISSIONS - A LOT OF CONTROL OVER GOVERNMENT
  • STALIN - LEADER OF SS - HEAD OF STATE - TOTAL CONTROL - POWER OF GOVERNMENT FOCUSED ENTIRELY IN HIS HANDS
  • BUKHARINS LAW - 'MOST DEMOCRATIC IN THE WORLD' - GARUNTEED POEPLE RIGHTS E.G. FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION - NKVD ACTED OUTSIDE IT - COULD DO WHATEVER THEY WANTED E.G. ARRESTS

LENIN'S SECRET POLICE - NEW NAMES

  • NKVD - PEOPLES COMISSERAT OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS - WORKED OUTSIDE 1936 CONSTITUTION - COULD IMPRISON OR MURDER ANYONE UNDER SUSPICION
  • OGPU - DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL POLICE
  • ENSURED NO ONE OPENLY CRITISISED COMMUNISM OR STALIN - TOTAL POWER
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The Purges

FORCED PEOPLE TO CONFESS TO LUDICROUS CRIMES - HUMILIATED THEM ON WORLDWIDE BROADCASTS - ARRESTED AND EXECUTED THEM IN SHOW TRIALS

OFFERED JUSTIFICATION FOR ELIMINATION OF OPPOSITION

  • 1936 -ZINOVIEV, KAMENEV AND 14 OTHER PARTY MEMBERS TRIED AND EXECUTED FOR PLOTTING TO KILL STALIN
  • 1937 - 17 LEADING BOLSHEVIKS ACCUSED OF SPYING ON GERMANY
  • 1 M LOWER STATED MEMBERS KILLED OR SENT TO LABOUR CAMPS
  • KILLED KULAKS - AGAINST INDUSTRIALISATION AND COLLECTIVE FARMING

ALLOWED EXCUSES FOR FAILURE AND SETBACKS

  • NKVD PROSECUTED - CHARGED WITH TREASON - HEAD OF NKVD SHOT AND DISMISSED
  • LOWER RANKING MEMBERS ACCUSED OF NOT CATCHING ENOUGH PEOPLE ON PURPOSE

PROVIDED STALIN WITH EXCUSE TO ARREST THE INNOCENT

  • KIROVS MURDER 1934 - NEWSPAPERS SAID MURDER PART OF TERRORIST CONSPIRACY TO KILL STALIN
  • KAMENEV AND ZINOVEIV IMMEDIATELY ARRESTED AFTERWARDS
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The Great Terror

NAME GIVEN TO PURGES CARRIED OUT ON MILLIONS OF INTELLECTUALS, INDUSTRIAL WORKERS AND OTHER NORMAL CITIZENS - 12 MILLION DIED

INCREASED SENSE OF TERROR AROUND CITIZENS

  • TARGETS SET FOR AMOUNTS OF PEOPLE ARRESTED AND SENT TO LABOUR CAMPS FOR A VILLIAGE
  • RESULTED IN RANDOM KILLINGS
  • BROADCASTED TO EVERYONE WHAT STALIN CAPABLE OF

NKVD COULD ARREST ANYONE FOR ANYTHING

  • SENT THEM TO GULAGS - PEOPLE STARVED AND FORCED TO CARRY OUT GRUELLING TASKS
  • THOSE WHO INFORMED MOST MORE LIKELY TO GET BETTER HOUSING

ALLOWED STALINS ACHEIVEMENTS TO BE FURTHER ACCENTUTED

  • PEOPLE IN LABOUR CAMPS BUILT LARGE INDUSTRIAL CITIES ETC.
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