Cold War Exam Questions Answered

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Section 4 ­ How did the Cold War develop?
Describe one decision made by the Allies about the war against Germany at the Tehran
Conference in 1943 (2 marks)
The allies agreed that in the aftermath of the war, the USSR could have a soviet sphere of influence amongst the
other countries in Eastern Europe.
Describe one reason why there was tension between the superpowers at the Tehran
Conference in 1943 (2 marks)
There was tension between USSR and USA and GBR because Stalin wanted to weaken Germany by forcing them to
pay large sums of reparations - this would mean that they would be too weak to attempt another war. However,
Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany because they wanted to stop history from repeating itself, as it
did with World War I.
Describe one reason why the Allies met at Yalta in February 1945 (2 marks)
The allies met to discuss what would happen to Germany know that they had full control over them. They wanted to
equally share out the land and resources and thus they decided to divide Berlin into four sections, and Germany into
four sections as well ­ one for each country.
Describe one reason why the Marshall Plan was drawn up in 1947 (2 marks)
The Marshall Plan was drawn up because the USA wanted to contain the spread of communism. The USA was
committed to an economic recovery of the west and believed that poverty and hardship were the breeding ground
for communism; thus the USA wanted to make the West prosperous.
Describe one reason why NATO was formed in 1949 (2 marks)
NATO was formed as a military alliance consisting entire of Western European countries. The main purpose of it was
that if one country was attacked by the USSR and communism, the other members would help to defend it. This was
strength in numbers.
Describe one effect of the Soviet occupation on the people of Hungary in the late 1940's (2
marks)
The Hungarian people opposed the communist government within their country. This hatred fuelled their
determination to overthrow the government in the Hungarian Uprising of 1956.
Describe one cause of the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 (2 marks)
Khrushchev made his "secret speech" which criticised Stalin's rule over the satellite states. This idea of
de-Stalinisation encouraged Hungary to take the opportunity to overthrow the communist government, as they
thought that Khrushchev was weaker than Stalin and thus easier to overthrow.
Briefly explain the key features of the Tehran conference in 1943 (6 marks)
In 1943 the three superpowers - USA, USSR and GBR- met at Tehran to briefly decide what would happen to
Germany and Europe after they win the war.
One key feature of the conference was that the three superpowers were at the height of good relations. Roosevelt,
Churchill and Stalin were very strong allies and were united against the overthrowing of Germany. During this time all
three allies were very agreeable to each other terms.

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Another key feature was that USA and GBR agreed that Stalin could have a soviet sphere of influence over Eastern
Europe as he already claimed numerous territories amongst Eastern Europe. The western superpowers wanted Stalin
to keep his communism expansion contained to only Eastern Europe and not Western Europe.
A further key feature was that there were slight disagreements between USA and GBR and USSR. USSR wanted to
weaken and cripple Germany by making them pay huge reparation costs.…read more

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USA and thus the Red Army easily overthrew the Hungarians. 30,000 Hungarians died and Nagy was executed. A
communist government was re-established in Hungary and people lost hope in the USA.
Briefly explain the key features of the Berlin Blockade in the years 1958-49 (6 marks)
One key feature of the Berlin Blockade as that Stalin cut off access to all forms of transport and railways were also
closed down. This meant that East Berliners were unable to reach their workplace in West Berlin.…read more

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A further decision was that the Nazi party would be banned from Germany. The superpowers would establish their
own governments in their won sectors. Any surviving Nazi criminals/supporters would be put on trial and punished.
Briefly explain the key features of the NATO in 1949 (6 marks)
One key feature was that NATO was formed because the USA was worried about the threat of nuclear war with the
USSR. The USSR had developed its first atomic bomb thus starting the Arms Race.…read more

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This was known as dollar
imperialism/diplomacy.
A further key reason was the civil war in Greece. GBR intervened to help the Monarchists fight the Communists.
However, when expenses increased GBR withdrew their troops. The USA stepped in and supplied arms and money
to the Monarchists. This turned the US away from isolationism.
Explain why Stalin decided to blockade Berlin in 1948 (12 marks)
One reason why Stalin blockaded Berlin was because the allies joined their zones together to form Trizonia.…read more

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A further reason was because the USA was committed to the economic recovery of Western Europe. They believed
that poverty and hardship was the breeding ground for communism. They came up with the Marshall Plan in 1947 ­
this was an economic recovery plan which would spend $17 billion to any country who needed the money. This was
known as dollar imperialism as the USA was trying to buy its allies.…read more

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One reason was because of the Arms Race. Both superpowers were competing against each other to build up the
best military defence. The USA had introduced the first atomic bomb in 1945 and by 1949 the USSR had its own
atomic bomb. This seemed to make both superpowers more eager to build even better nuclear weapons such as the
hydrogen bombs in 1952 and 1953. Thus relations worsened between the superpowers.
This provoked the USA to form NATO in 1949.…read more

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Describe one decision made about the testing of weapon following the signing of the Partial
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963 (2 marks)
The superpowers could only limit their nuclear testing to underground. They were not allowed to test nuclear
weapons in outer space. This limited the development of nuclear weapons in the Arms Race.…read more

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West was a continual reminder to East Berliners of their low standard of living. The wall would prevent all these
things from occurring.
A further key feature was that Kennedy provoked the USSR by pulling more troops into West Berlin. The soviet tanks
did not allow any crossings into the East. The tanks faced each other for 18 hours and then finally withdrew.…read more

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A further key feature was that the USA won a propaganda victory over the USSR. To the rest of the world it looked
like the USSR had to build a wall to stop its people from leaving East Berlin. This way West Berlin remained a symbol
of freedom.
Describe the key features of the involvement of the USA in the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961 (6
marks)
One key feature was that Kennedy wanted to use pro-US Cuban rebels to invade Cuba.…read more

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