Stage 6- Present a summary of the findings and an evaluation of the investigation

Geography Skills

Present a summary of the findings and an evaluation of the investigation


Presenting findings


  • Draw a conclusion linked back to original question - proved or not?
  • Provide main reasons
  • Does it support the geographical model/concept? suggest why or why not. Is there a flaw in your strategy/results or is the concept suspect?


  • Discuss limitations- time, timing, equipment, method, personnel, location,; explain effects of these on results
  • Suggestions for improvement- other times/places, improved method (e.g. sampling methodology), more effective and/or robust equipment
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Limitations of the chosen model- A

It is rare that investigations fully support the chosen model of concept

A) There are limitations in the models/concepts

  • Models/concepts are usually generalisations so they are unlikely to apply to your location or investigation
  • They indicate what ought to happen in 'ideal' circumstances- often certain factors were held constant
  • Often they were formulated in a different country
  • They were suggested some time ago e.g. Burgess model dates from 1925
  • Many are not based on measurements in the field but are based on logic
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Limitations of the chosen model- B

B) There are limitations in the investigation in terms of the models/concepts

  • Different methodology, equipment, etc was used
  • Different level of accuracy, timing, etc
  • Insufficient sample size or number of measurements
  • The investigation was only looking at one of the aspects of the model/concept or its surface expression
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  • Must identify the particular circumstances that created the anomaly 
  • Limitations are suggesed reasons why your investigation was not fully complete, accurate and reliable. It is rare for there not to be any. They can be grouped as:
    • Initial planning limitations
    • Data collection and recording limitations
    • Data processing limitations
    • Accuracy and reliability of the data
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  • Repeating the investigation in a different location
  • Repeating the investigation at different times
  • Increasing the sample size
  • Improving the sampling strategy e.g. unit, method
  • Taking into account further variables
  • Using better, more accurate and reliable equipment
  • Finding further sources of data- especially secondary
  • Re-formulating the title (question being investigated)
  • Making organisational improvements- better teamwork etc
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