- People of local towns/villages around Sparta.
- Used as craftsmen to repair weapons/equipment.
- Governed themselves and fought with Spartans in battle.
- 80-100 communities of perioeci in Spartan territory, most of which were found in areas where the soil was not as good - on mountain slopes or near the coast.
- Had to obey Spartans and couldn't form own policy on war or relation to other countries.
- The main way they contributed to Spartan life was economics.
- Traders and craftsmen who made: clothing, shoes, furniture, storage jars, types of metalwork. They were fishermen, shipbuilders, farmers of less fertile land.
- Members didn't rebel because quality of life was good compared to other parts of Greece.
- Greeks often at war so citizens spent most time fighting. Didn't go to war often as they mainly kept helots under control. Member of perioeci fought less than Athenian citizen
- It was in their interests to help the Spartans police the helots and their villages acted as buffer zones to stop them from escaping.
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- Many more helots than Spartans = 10/20:1.
- They were state - owned slaves who had no political or legal rights.
- Duties: farmers - looked after estates as each had to produce a certain amount of produce and they could keep any profit from extra goods; household slaves - worked in houses (mostly women who worked as nurses); baggage-handlers/skirmishes: in war, carried bags or fought small battles and were watched carefully (in case they escaped).
- Treatment=brutal, weren't allowed areas without gov. permission, always under suspicion.
- Each year, declared Spartans/helots at war (Spartans could attack/kill without justification).
- The krypteia used them for training.
- Spartans spread terror to stop rebellions and seemed to have been successful as there were no large revolts.
- Helots were owned by the state so they didn't depend on individual masters.
- If the state gave them to individuals, it was only with limited power and only the state could order them to be killed.
- Helots allowed to live independently of families - wasn't the case for other slaves in Greece.
- Helots had freedom of religion and could worship the gods like Spartans and perioeci
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