> sociology explores the social factors that shape human behaviour and the way that society influences our daily lives.
> sociology is often defined as the study of society. a 'society' can be defined as a group of people who share a culture or a way of life.
What Sociologists Study
Social Structures Social Processes Social Issues
Different groups + The means by which Issues that affect
institutions that make something takes place groups, communities
up society. in society. ,individuals in life.
>Families Primary socialization. quality of parenting.
Gender socialization. teenage parenthood.
>Education System Secondary socialization. educational
Development of social
>Legal System Formal + infromal social knife/teenage crime
control. fear of crime.
>Social Stratification Discrimination. poverty.
System cause/effect > inequality.
Sociology + Other Approaches
CONTRASTING SOCIOLOGY + PSYCHOLOGY:
> psychologists focus on individual behaviour + study topics like mental illness.
> sociologists study social influences on human life + focus on goup behaviour.
CONTRASTING SOCIOLOGY + BIOLOGY:
> biologists look for biological causes/characteristics when studying human
> sociologists view behaviour as social or cultural rather than biological.
CONTRASTING SOCIOLOGY + JOURNALISM:
> journalistic research is less thorough than a sociologists + can be biased.
> sociologists must select/use evidence in a specific way to avoid critisms.
Carrying Out Sociological Research (1/2)
STAGE IN RESEARCH PROCESS BRIEF EXPLANATION
1) developing research aims + the aims set out what the researcher
hypothesis intends to investigate + provide the study's focus. a hypothesis is an informed guess + is written as a statement > its either supported by evidence or proved wrong.
2) carry out pilot survey its a small scal trial run carried out before
the main research.
3) selecting a sample instead of surveying the whole population you select a sample usingsampling techniques such as random sampling.
Carrying Out Sociological Research (2/2)
4) collecting the data sociologists collect data using primary methods e.g. questionnaires + observation. they may also use secondary sources e.g. official statistics or mas media reports. data can be qualitative or quantitative.
5) analysing the data interpret or make sense of the information + presenting the results/main findings.
6) evaluation/ conclude sociologists write articles in journals + present papers at confrences. these findings are evaluated by peers > peer view.
Sampling Techniques (1/2)
NON-PROBABILITY: used when a frame is not avaliable, it is not selected randomly so will not represent the whole population. E.G.
>SNOWBALL: through contact with one member of population the researchers is introduced to others of the same
Sampling Techniques (2/2)
PROBABILITY: each member of the frame has an equal chance of being selected, if selected randomly the results may represent the whole population.
>SIMPLE RANDOM: each member of population has an equal chance of being selected.
>STRATIFIED RANDOM: researchers divide the population into strata(subgroups) according to similarities such as age,gender, ethnicity. then a sample is drawn from each sub group randomly in proportion to population.
>SYSTEMATIC: researchers take every nth term from the frame, e.g. every 20th name on a school register.