SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCES

SOCIAL GROUPS AND FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION

Gender:

  • less female role models in sports
  • women percieved as the 'weaker sex'
  • more media coverage of men in sport
  • often less prize money, salaries, sponsorship or funding for sportswomen
  • media focuses on womens personal life rather than sporting achievements

Ethnicity, race, religion and culture:

  • dress codes, such as the Sikh requires men to wear turbans
  • less role model elite sportspeople from ethnic minority backgrounds
  • Ramadan fasting - energy levels are lower

 

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MORE...

Age:

  • skills can improve with age + experience
  • younger people have more free time
  • older people take longer recovery time and are more likely to have ill health
  • tidal volume + stroke decreases (its harder to get oxygen to the working muscles)
  • strength increases and flexibility decreases with age

Family, friends + peers:

  • peer group participation in sport will make you more likely to participate ( vice versa)
  • family provide equipment, transport + can be role models
  • peer pressure (positive + negative)

Disability:

  • limited opportunities, travel, facilities + qualified teachers/coaches
  • increased media coverage (paralympics)
  • different disabilities can make competitions unfair
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THE COMMERCIALISATION OF SPORT

Commercialisation = the management or exploitation of a person, organisation or activity in a way designed to make profit.

The Media:

  • Broadcast - TV + Radio
  • Internet - Social media, search engines + websites
  • Print/press - Newspapers, magazines + books
  • Outdoor - billboards

Sponsor = an individual or group (usually a company) that provides support to an event, activity, person or organisation.

Sponsorship = provision of funds or other support to an event, activity, person or organisation in return for some kind or commercial return.

Types of sponsorship: financial, clothing/equipment/footwear, facilicites

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IMPACTS OF SPONSORSHIP AND THE MEDIA - POSITIVE

  • On peformers: Money, able to afford better coaching. Turn them into role models. More competitions, increases performance standard.
  • On officials: Makes them role models. Money, career path develops.
  • On the sport: Attracts attention, increases participation. Money for kit, equipment, facilities, coaches + players.
  • On audience/spectators: Scheduled events, people can watch on media. Commentary available. Info about fixtures and ranking provided.
  • On the sponsor/company: Name/brand linked to positive, healthy, triumphant activity. Advertisment to wide audience.
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IMPACTS OF SPONSORSHIP AND THE MEDIA - NEGATIVE

  • On performer: increases pressur, reduces enjoyment. Mistakes made public. Distracted from training. More competitions- overtraining + injury.
  • On officials: Increased pressure to make decisions, reduces enjoyment. Mistakes made public.
  • On the sport: Rules change to meet medias requirements. Over exposure- people lose interest.
  • On audience/spectators: More people stay home and watch. Expensive to watch. Harder to get tickets.
  • On the sponsor/company: Scandal- reputation damaged.
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TECHNOLOGY IN SPORT

Hawkeye = Computer system, uses several cameras to track the flight and tragectory of balls.

Performance analysis aids/dartfish = Include wearable technology to monitor and record a performer.

TV match officials (VAR) = Video assistant referees that check and review the decisions made by on-field match officials.

Impacts (positive + negative):

  • On performer - Help improve performance. Able to question decisions made against them. Expensive. Disrupt play.
  • On the sport -  Fair competitions. Garantees correct decisions. Disrupts play.
  • On officials - Provides help and they can communicate. Undermines poor decisions. They can become too reliant - wasting time.
  • On audience/spectators - See how decisions are made. Causes unrest if decisions aren't reviewed.
  • On the sponsor/company - Reflects good image - fair. Not available at all levels of sport.
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ETHICAL CONDUCT BY PERFORMERS

Etiquette: A convention or unwritten rule.

Sportsmanship: Conforming to rules, spirit + etiquette of a sport.

Gamesmanship: Attempting to gain an advantage by stretching the rules.

Contract to compete: An unwritten agreement between opponents to abide by all rules.

Performance Enhancing Drugs:

  • Anabolic agents/steroids
  • Beta blockers
  • Blood doping
  • Diuretic 
  • Narcotic analgesics
  • Peptide horemones
  • Stimulants
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PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS

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SPECTATOR BEHAVIOUR

Positives + Negatives:

  • Energetic atmosphere
  • Source of revenue
  • Give performers home-field advantage
  • Increase profile of support
  • Pressure performers
  • Scare off younger performers
  • Cause trouble/hooliganism
  • Costs money to manage

Stratagies to combat hooliganism:

  • Early kick-offs
  • Improved security
  • All-seater stadiums
  • Segregation of fans
  • Alcohol restrictions
  • Travel restrictions & banning orders
  • Educating spectators - encouraging good behaviour
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