- Created by: luluirmiger
- Created on: 13-11-18 17:09
SOCIAL GROUPS AND FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION
- less female role models in sports
- women percieved as the 'weaker sex'
- more media coverage of men in sport
- often less prize money, salaries, sponsorship or funding for sportswomen
- media focuses on womens personal life rather than sporting achievements
Ethnicity, race, religion and culture:
- dress codes, such as the Sikh requires men to wear turbans
- less role model elite sportspeople from ethnic minority backgrounds
- Ramadan fasting - energy levels are lower
- skills can improve with age + experience
- younger people have more free time
- older people take longer recovery time and are more likely to have ill health
- tidal volume + stroke decreases (its harder to get oxygen to the working muscles)
- strength increases and flexibility decreases with age
Family, friends + peers:
- peer group participation in sport will make you more likely to participate ( vice versa)
- family provide equipment, transport + can be role models
- peer pressure (positive + negative)
- limited opportunities, travel, facilities + qualified teachers/coaches
- increased media coverage (paralympics)
- different disabilities can make competitions unfair
THE COMMERCIALISATION OF SPORT
Commercialisation = the management or exploitation of a person, organisation or activity in a way designed to make profit.
- Broadcast - TV + Radio
- Internet - Social media, search engines + websites
- Print/press - Newspapers, magazines + books
- Outdoor - billboards
Sponsor = an individual or group (usually a company) that provides support to an event, activity, person or organisation.
Sponsorship = provision of funds or other support to an event, activity, person or organisation in return for some kind or commercial return.
Types of sponsorship: financial, clothing/equipment/footwear, facilicites
IMPACTS OF SPONSORSHIP AND THE MEDIA - POSITIVE
- On peformers: Money, able to afford better coaching. Turn them into role models. More competitions, increases performance standard.
- On officials: Makes them role models. Money, career path develops.
- On the sport: Attracts attention, increases participation. Money for kit, equipment, facilities, coaches + players.
- On audience/spectators: Scheduled events, people can watch on media. Commentary available. Info about fixtures and ranking provided.
- On the sponsor/company: Name/brand linked to positive, healthy, triumphant activity. Advertisment to wide audience.
IMPACTS OF SPONSORSHIP AND THE MEDIA - NEGATIVE
- On performer: increases pressur, reduces enjoyment. Mistakes made public. Distracted from training. More competitions- overtraining + injury.
- On officials: Increased pressure to make decisions, reduces enjoyment. Mistakes made public.
- On the sport: Rules change to meet medias requirements. Over exposure- people lose interest.
- On audience/spectators: More people stay home and watch. Expensive to watch. Harder to get tickets.
- On the sponsor/company: Scandal- reputation damaged.
TECHNOLOGY IN SPORT
Hawkeye = Computer system, uses several cameras to track the flight and tragectory of balls.
Performance analysis aids/dartfish = Include wearable technology to monitor and record a performer.
TV match officials (VAR) = Video assistant referees that check and review the decisions made by on-field match officials.
Impacts (positive + negative):
- On performer - Help improve performance. Able to question decisions made against them. Expensive. Disrupt play.
- On the sport - Fair competitions. Garantees correct decisions. Disrupts play.
- On officials - Provides help and they can communicate. Undermines poor decisions. They can become too reliant - wasting time.
- On audience/spectators - See how decisions are made. Causes unrest if decisions aren't reviewed.
- On the sponsor/company - Reflects good image - fair. Not available at all levels of sport.
ETHICAL CONDUCT BY PERFORMERS
Etiquette: A convention or unwritten rule.
Sportsmanship: Conforming to rules, spirit + etiquette of a sport.
Gamesmanship: Attempting to gain an advantage by stretching the rules.
Contract to compete: An unwritten agreement between opponents to abide by all rules.
Performance Enhancing Drugs:
- Anabolic agents/steroids
- Beta blockers
- Blood doping
- Narcotic analgesics
- Peptide horemones
PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS
Positives + Negatives:
- Energetic atmosphere
- Source of revenue
- Give performers home-field advantage
- Increase profile of support
- Pressure performers
- Scare off younger performers
- Cause trouble/hooliganism
- Costs money to manage
Stratagies to combat hooliganism:
- Early kick-offs
- Improved security
- All-seater stadiums
- Segregation of fans
- Alcohol restrictions
- Travel restrictions & banning orders
- Educating spectators - encouraging good behaviour