Social Development


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Harlow and Harlow

Monkey Study

Monkeys were separated from their mothers at birth and placed in a wire cage with a mesh mother with a bottle, and a cloth mother

Most of the day they clung to the cloth mother for warmth and comfort, and only went over to the wire mesh mother when they were in great need of food. this shows that a need for comfort is greater than a need for food in animals.

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Schaffer and Emerson

60 Children - Mothers interviewed

60 children were involved in a study, their mothers were interviewed about the way they make attachments and every so often they would be interviewed again.

It turned out that nearly 1/3 of the infants had an attachment to more than one person



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Bowlby's attachment stages

0-2 months: Pre-attachment no attachment has yet been made

2-7 months: Attachment making Shows preference to an adult (usually mother)

7-24 months: Clear attachment Shows distress when seperated, happy when reunited

24+ months: Reciprocal relationships Understanding that caregiver has different motives to themselves

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Types of attachment

Secure - Distressed when caregiver leaves, happy on return

Ambivalent - Little distressed but not too bothered when caregiver returns

Avoidant - No distress when caregiver leaves

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