Pressure to conform can be reduced if there are others not conforming. This makes individuals feel more confident in their own decision and rejecting the majority position.
Evaluation – research to support from Asch. But this is artificial and androcentric (men only)
the pressure to obey can be reduced if another disobeys, they may not copy their behaviour but they act a role model for them to copy and act form his own conscience.
Evaluation – Gamson found that 29 of 33 groups of P’s disobeyed when others also did. It had high realism levels giving external validity.
Locus of Control
- Refers to a person’s perception of personal control over their own behaviour.
What happens to them is largely a consequence of their own behaviour. And one can control much of one’s life and succeed in difficult situations. They accept responsibility for their actions and are more independent. These people are less likely to conform or be obedient.
‘things happen to them’ and it is uncontrollable. They value luck and fate. In stressful situations, they face more passively believing their own actions have little impact. More likely to conform and be obedient.
Evaluation – meta-analysis showed high externals are more easily persuaded. A Milgram replication showed 37% of internals refusing. This is very situation dependant and analysis of data over 40yrs more resistance to obedience but a rise in external LoC’s.