When the audience induced arousal improves performance.
When the audience induced arousal reduces performance
Influence of arousal on performance
PERSONALITY: Social Facilitaion = extrovert personalitlies often perform better when an audience is present. The RAS is less sensitive so extroverts can cope with increased arousal. Social Inhibition = introvert personalities preform better when an audience isn't present. The RAS is very sensitive so causes over arousal when an audience is present.
TYPE OF SKILL: Social Facilitation = gross and simple skills are performed best under levels of high arousal and may improve performance in fornt of an audience. Social Inhibition = fine and complex skills require a ower optimum arousal so the performance may get worse in the presence of an audience.
STAGE OF LEARNING: Social Facilitation = people at the autonomous stage have a correctly learnt dominant response that can be used in high arousal conditions. Social Inhibition = people at the cognitive / associative stage have an incorect dominant response which causes high arousal to be negative.
Drive Theory of Social Facilitation
STATES - the presence of others increases arousal; increased arousal increases the likelyhood of the dominant response occuring.
High Arousal = Would be beneficial to those at the autonomous stage as they have a correctly stored dominant response that can be used. Also useful to extroverts as they excel in high arousal. When performing a simple and gross skills such as running.
High Arousal = Would be negative for those at the cognitive stage as they wouldn't have a correct dominant response stored. Introverts don't like high arousal. Fine and complex skills are harder under high arousal such as snooker.
CRITIQUE = states that the presence of anyone would increase arousal and possibly have a negative effect on performance.
STATES = increases in arousal only occur when the individual thinks they are being assessed during a performance.
Social Inhibition = introverts with low trait confidence and high trait anxiety
Social Facilitation = extroverts with high trait confidence and low trait anxiety
Home Advantage Effect
STATES = large supportive home crowds provide the home team with an advantage
This can be very powerful and appears to be more influential as the size of the audience increases.
Social Facilitation = huge home crowd
Social Inhibition = huge away crowd
STATES = the location of the audience in relation to the performance has an important effect on arousal levels
The closer the audience is the greater effect on arousal
The influence of arousal will be determined by the type of skill, personality and stage of learning
Social Facilitation = The audience being close would have a positive effect on those that are at the autonomus stage, extroverts and if the skill is gross and simple
Social Inhibition = The audience being close will have a negative effect on those that are at the cognitive / association stage, introverts and if the skill is fine and complex
Distraction - Conflict Theory
STATES = an audience can distract an athletes focus, which can have a negative effect on performance
Selective attention involves picking out therelevant cues from the environment. If the athletes focuses on the crowd then they will be distracted from their task
Simple tasks that require little attention are best performed in front of an audience; whereas complex tasks would be impaired.
Strategies to combat Social Inhibition
SELECTIVE ATTENTION = to help maintain focus on relevant cues
MENTAL REHERSAL = improve concentration and block out the audience to help lower arousal
POSITIVE SELF-TALK = block out negative thoughts and evaluations and lower arousal
PRACTISE IN FRONT OF AN AUDIENCE = get used to hostile environments and increased arousal levels
OVERLEARN BASIC SKILLS = so the dominant responses are correct in high arousal conditions
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = helps to reduce anxiety and stress, which in turn lowers arousal
APPROPRIATE USE OF ATTRIBUTION = to increase confience of the performer