Sculptures

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  • Created by: Samantha
  • Created on: 12-05-13 18:40

New York Kouros

Date: c.590 BC - Archaic Period

Material: Stone

Similarities to Egyptians:

  • Same rigid pose; arms straight by side, one leg advanced, head straight forward.
  • Hair is the most detailed section.
  • Ill-defined musculature.
  • Simplistic anatomy - unsophisticated & unrealistic

Differences:

  • Nude, not clothed.
  • Better proportioned, face more realistic and detailed (emotionless).
  • Completely freestanding  & properly seperated limbs.

Repetition on knees, eyes and eyebrow contours.

Symmetry along verticle and horizontal axis.

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The Berlin Kore

Date: c. 570-60 BC

Material: Stone

  • Symmetrical except for arms.
  • Different pose to male kouros.
  • Has the archaic smile - appear more realistic.
  • Wearing clothes unlike male kouros.
  • Shoulders arern't overly feminine - broad, not slender.
  • Holding a pomegranite - a typical offering of time period.

Clothes:

  • Sleeves a finer material.
  • Clothes rigidly patterned, not assymetrical.
  • Too heavy and straight to be realistic, no sense of body.
  • Still some stone left between arms.
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Anavyssos Kouros

Date: c. 530 BC

Material: Stone

A grave marker

Similarities to Kouros:

  • Same pose and height
  • Similar symmetry
  • Hair most detailed part.
  • Nude and made out of stone.

Advances:

  • Archaic smile.
  • More rounded form, replaced NYK incised features.
  • Greater realism/naturalism.
  • More shape to body.
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Peplos Kore

Date: c.540-30 BC

Material: Stone

  • Face more realistic and rounded - archaic smile.
  • Shoulders are narrower.
  • Arm would have been outstretched, holding an offering.
  • Arm put into socket - not carved from single block.
  • Hair is symmetrical but falls more naturally to give shape.

Clothes:

  • Dress = peplos; old fashioned for her time.
  • More sense of body under dress.
  • Waist band not exactly symmetrical.
  • Fainter folds; peplos not as heavily styalised - gives more shape.
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Kritios Boy

Date: c.480 BC

Material: Marble

  • Similar pose to Kouros & free standing.

Differences:

  • Contrapposto; weight on left leg, hip raised.
  • Influenced by new statues.
  • Less defined musculature; greater naturalism/realism.
  • Archaic smile gone!
  • Detailed hair.
  • Hair and eyes show influence from bronze statues- eyes into sockets.
  • Head at an angle.
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Tyrannicides (Tyrant Killers)

Date: c/ 477/6 BC

Material: Origionally bronze - have a copy.

Sculptures: Kritios & Nesiotes; Didn't know what they looked like but knew Harmodius was a youth killed in battle & Aristogeiton was a mature man captured alive.

Story: In 514 BC they conspired to kill a tyrant - first signs of democracy. Failed - died while trying to do it. 10 years later Athens became a democracy and honoured them.

Harmodius:

  • Shown striding vigorously forward - bold and daring (youthful impetuosity)
  • Left arm upraised in preporation for irresistable chopping blow.

Aristogeiton:

  • More wary and wise - mature caution.
  • Realistic drapery - used to entangle weapons.

Difference in personalities captured.

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Charioteer of Delphi

Date: c.480-70 BC

Material: Bronze w/ silver, copper & onyx

- Dedicated to Apollo at Delphi to commemorate victory in chariot races.

  • Hair more realistic than koroi but half isn't 3D.
  • Face more realistic.
  • Meant to be expressionless and stiff to fulfil his role.
  • Torso & face not completely in proportion to legs.
  • The robe is very naturalist/realistic. It folds better.
  • Feet admired due to detail.
  • Whole body forms a gental spiral, full of easy assymetrics - more realistic.
  • Was made with 4 horses, a chariot and a groom.
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Artemisium of Zeus/Poseidon

Date: c.460 BC

Material: Bronze

Pose:

  • Intense expression
  • Head at an angle
  • Left hand out to aim; about to throwm a thunderbolt/trident (missing)
  • Good muscle definition.
  • Contrapposto, weight on left leg.
  • A more adventurous action pose - sculptures during this period were more interested in creating actions poses.
  • Over life size - a god.

Problems:

  • Doesn't look good at every angle - some bits look flat.
  • The torso, though detailed, doesn't reflect the actual action pose.
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Riace Warriors

 Date: c.460-30 BC

Material: Bronze w/ glass, ivory, silver & copper

Pose:

  • Very detailed hair - cast seperately and stuck on.
  • Torso's are turned to match the rest of the body. (single mold?)
  • Contrapposto - one leg bent, hip raised.
  • Assymetric arms and legs add realism,
  • Muscle tone and detail well crafted (veins visible).
  • Used to hold spears and sheilds. B had helmet.
  • B older - muscle less defined and face more aged.

Represent:

  • Valour, courage and military prowess. Extreme vigour and strength.

Problem: Comparitavely, Iliac crest unrealistic as well as grooves on torso.

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Diskobolos

Date: c.460-50 BC

Material: Marble, orgional bronze lost (allowed more developed/ambitious pose)

Sculptor: Myron

  • Depicts a discus thrower about to release his throw.
  • Combination of dynamism and stillness.
  • Combination of curved/straight lines work against symmetry.
  • Back curved, contrast with zig zag on other side. Very assymetrical.
  • No beard, young athletic man.

Problems:

  • Pose is quite unnatural.
  • Torso doesn't reflect the contorted position.
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Doryphoros (spear-bearer)

Date: c.440 BC

Material: Bronze, orgional bronze lost (wouldn't have had tree trunk support)

Sculptor: Polykleitos

  • Beardless, young man, athletic.
  • Torso is contracted.
  • Would have been carrying a spear.
  • Head turned to the right, far away dreamy expression.
  • Contrapposto: left heel raised to give impression of being in mid-step, in motion.
  • Good proportion and realism - look good from all angles.

Dynamic Equilibrium: Right side is relaxed. Left side enlivened by bent limbs.

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Nike at Olympia

Date: c. 420 BC

Material: Marble

Sculptor: Paionios of Mende

  • Symbol of victory.
  • Dedicated to Messians and Naupactians for victory over Spartans.
  • Nike conventionally depicted as winged, flying down from the heavens.
  • Originally had wings, drapery used to give flight drama.
  • Wearing a peplos.
  • Originally placed on a traingular pillar 10m high (swooping down from the heavens).
  • 2.16m high.

Transparency effect: Body revealed through clothing (wet look)

Modelling lines: Ridges of marble left on to help create impression of 3 dimensionality.

Motion lines: Wavy lines in drapery. Double curves used to indicate the effect of movement on clothes.

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Eirene and Ploutos (Peace and Wealth)

Date: c.375 BC

Material: Marble (Copy)

Sculptor: Kephisodotos

-Idea embodied in sculptural form. Peace is the nurse of wealth. Must have peace to have wealth.

-Religious context: 

New development: More than 1 person in 1 statue.

Humanising the gods. Tenderness represented as purely human emotion. Exploration of human emotion. Eirene - motherly. Ploutos - adoration/trust. Looking at each other.

  • Less dramatic than Nike - simplicity/naturalism back in vogue. Simple verticle drapery.
  • Transparency effect: Right knee is slightly bent.
  • May have held something in her right hand.
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Hermes with infant Dionysus

Date: c.350-25 BC

Material: Marble (maybe a copy, if so, very high quality)

Sculptor: Praxiteles

Praxiteles used marble expertly to

  • highlight the softness of flesh & radiance of skin.
  • Diffusion  of light on marble can be use to capture elasticity of flesh and marble.

Grapes held in right arm, Dionysus reaching. Foreshadows Dionysus' future role. (Element of wit)

Hermes is a young beardless man - in lazy/languid pose. Off balance (contrapposto).

  • More playful version of Eirene and Ploutos. Hermes: God of Trickery.
  • More slender and natural than Doryphoros. (Less defined musculature).

Luminous quality. Softer effect than bronze. Not so focused on movement.

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Apollo Sauroktonos (Lizard Slayer)

Date: c.350-25 BC

Material: Marble (orginal bronze)

Sculptor: Praxiteles

Apollo often depicted as a youthful god - no beard. Humanising gods - boyish.

Assymetrical arrangement. Contrapposto - weight on right leg, hip raised. Almost naturalistic - a bit exaggerated.

Apollo toying with idea of killing lizard. Perhaps highlighting gods violent streak, uncaring attitude. Foreshadowing Apollo killing Python at Delphi.

Left heel raised like Doryphoros.

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Aphrodite of Knidos

Date: c.375-350 BC

Material: Marble (copy)

Sculptor: Praxiteles

First large scale representation of a female nude. An ****** pose, caused scandelous stories. Either disrobed to bathe or has just finished.

From transparency effect to no clothes at all.

  • Head turned - someone come in from that direction.
  • Right arm preserves modesty - maybe disturbed.
  • Knees closed together, heel raised.

Contrapposto; developed from the position of male atheletes, now used for soft, nude female body.

Drapery is detailed while body is simple and smooth. Good contrast.

Originally placed int he middle of circular temple, seen from every perspective.

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Aphrodite of Knidos

Date: c.375-350 BC

Material: Marble (copy)

Sculptor: Praxiteles

First large scale representation of a female nude. An ****** pose, caused scandelous stories. Either disrobed to bathe or has just finished.

From transparency effect to no clothes at all.

  • Head turned - someone come in from that direction.
  • Right arm preserves modesty - maybe disturbed.
  • Knees closed together, heel raised.

Contrapposto; developed from the position of male atheletes, now used for soft, nude female body.

  • Drapery is detailed while body is simple and smooth. Good contrast.
  • Originally placed in the middle of circular temple, seen from every perspective.
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Marathon Boy

Date: c.350-25 BC 

Material: Bronze

Athlete or Hermes?

Very exaggerated contrapposto. Shows grace, gentle movement and agility.

Looking at what he's holding in left hand. Right hand holding something/leaning. Inserted eyes give sense of life and expression.

  • Soft musculature. Raised heel.
  • Ribbon in hair with horn-like projection.
  • Twist of the head. S curve on torso.

Shows influence from Praxiteles; similarities to Apollo Sauroktonos:

  • Pose & exaggerated contrapposto
  • Youthful adolescence
  • Restrained muscle tone
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Apoxyomenos (man scraping himself)

Date: c.350-25 BC

Material: Marble (original bronze)

Sculptor: Lysippos - a famous portraist (more focused on realism than beauty like Praxiteles)

A naturalistic sculpture - not aiming for perfection. A youngish man.

Head is quite small - realistic. Scraper in left arm.

Depicts an every day scene unlike mythological gods and godesses.

Exaggerated pose - radical assymetry.

Contrapposto - weight on left leg; maybe about to transfer it.

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