SCIENCES

these cards are about sciences overall and will help people in KS3

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LIFE PROCESSES

There are seven life process that all living things have and do, they are:

M = MOVEMENT

R = RESPIRATION

S = SENSITIVITY

G = GROWTH

R = REPRODUCTION

E = EXCRETION

N = NUTRITION

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FIVE SPECIALISED CELL

There are five specialised cells:

  • the sperm cell - this is designed to fertilise eggs. Its head contains enzymes which allow it to digest to the cell membrane so the 2 nuclei can join.
  • The ovum - designed to be ferilised by the sperm cell. The ovum is large and bulky because there is no movement needed. In the middle it contains a yolk to store the food for the young organisms once fertilised. It also carries chorosomes which carry genetic information.
  • The palisade cell - designed for photosynthesis. this cell is tall with a large surface area which is good for absorbing sunlight which is needed for photosynthesis. They are packed with chloroplast which contains green chlorophyll.
  • The cilated cell - designed to stop lung damage. They have tiny hair cells which filter the airas it blows through. The hairs sweep the dust and bacteria up the throat where its swallowed.
  • The root hair - designed for absorbing. This long hair root cell increases the surface area helping it absorb water and minerals. It has a really thin wall so its easier for minerals to pass across the roots itself.
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NUTRITION

To have a balanced diet there are seven food groups you need:

  • Carbohydrates - fuel for the body
  • Proteins - vital for growth and to repair damaged areas
  • Fats - acts as a store of energy when your body runs out of carbohydrates.
  • Vitamins - only need small amounts they keep vital processes happening
  • Minerals - meat (blood), calcium (bones/teeth), sodium (nerves), seafood (thyroid)
  • Roughage - gives your digestive system an internal work out keeping it fit and working and healthy
  • Water - About 75% of the body is water and all chemical reactions(e.g. digestion), take place in water - its really important.
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NUTRITION (PART 2)

Four important food tests:

  • The iodine test for starch - Brown iodine mixed with food will turn blue/black if the food contains starch.
  • The biuret test for protein - Add sodium hydroxide solution followed by weak copper sulphate solution. If the pale blue turns purple theres protein.
  • The alcohol-emulsion test for Fats - Mix the food with ethanol then filter it. Add clear solution to water. A white emulsion means the food has fat in it.
  • Benedict's test for simple sugars - heat benedict solution with food = orange precipitate indicates simple sugars are present.
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FORCES AND MOVEMENT

Nearly all forces are pushes and pulls. Forces can't be seen but the effect of it can be seen. Forces comes in pairs(e.g. push/pull, thrust/air resistance) Forces make objects do five things.

  • Speed up (like kicking a football)
  • Slow down (like air resistance/drag)
  • Change direction (hitting a ball with a bat)
  • Turn (like turning a spanner)
  • Change Shape (like streching, twisting, compressing, bending)

Two important statements of forces and movements:
BALANCED FORCES PRODUCE NO CHANGE IN MOVEMENT (AND)
UNBALANCED FORCES CHANGE THE SPEED AND/OR DIRECTION AND/OR SHAPE OF MOVING OBJECT

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FORCE AND ROTATION

Force causes objects to turn around and pivot. Theres an important rule about levers:
THE LONGER THE LEVER, THE GREATER THE TURNING FORCE ABOUT THE PIVOT.

There are loads of everyday lever examples such as:

  • getting lid off things
  • opening doors
  • scissors/cutting things
  • using arms to pick things up
  • Wheelborrows
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