Safety through the food chain section 1 (farm to folk)

  • Created by: caolan24
  • Created on: 03-12-18 10:43

Food saftey: A Shared Repsonibility

Food safety is a shared responsiblity from farm to folk. Involves: 

  • Argricultural production
  • Processing
  • Transport
  • Food production
  • Consumption

Food producers are obliged to maintance effective saftey managment systems.

  • Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)
  • Good manufacturing practices (GMP)  or Good agricultural practices (GAP)

Suppoerted by programs, such as staff traning, effective cleaning and sanitation, allegen control, pest control. ongoing monitoring and testing.

Consumers also should be aware of their responsibility.

  • Following food saftey instructions, checking used by/best before dates and practicing goof kitchen hygiene.
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The Farm

Modern farming does its upmost to maintaine food quality and safety in food production.

2 types of food saftey issues can be determined:

  • Chemicals at levels which may be harmful to health. (Chemicals may be naturally occuring or come from external sources as a result of farming practices or chemicals in the soil.)
  • Micro-organsisms and their toxins in amounts that can cause illness and be harmful to health. (Include bacrterial such as listeria, salmonella and campylobacter, parasites and viruses.)

To ensure products comply they are assesed by a team of scientised and farm advisors, in order to recive advice on the correct use of fertilisers, persticides, qnd anitbiotics.

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Food Processing

The food processing industry aims to meet customers expectations for food that is. safe, nutritious, unspoiled, convenient and available in a wide variety and affordable.

  • Food Saftey in food processing = eliminating/reducing the multiplication of microbes that can cause food born illnesses. 

Food processing relies on quality management systems to ensure the quality and safety of the product.  

  • Good manufacturing practices = good conditions/environment the food is produced in. 
  • HACCP ( Hazard analysis and critical control point) focuses on preventing defects in the production process, rather than identifying them. 
  • Quality assurance (ISO 9000) ensures that food processing companies adhere to industry standards and conform to the prescribed procedures. 
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Transportation and storage (Part 1)


  • Cross contamination between food and livestock = spread infection/health and safety issues.
  • Cereals when stored in a damp environment or not in suitable packaging = mouldy or infested with insects. 
  • Soft cheese is prone to listeria if not stored at the correct temperature/if not transported in a cold environment.   


Milk must be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up 48 hours, to ensure freshness through transportation. 

  • Any delay in transport will shorten the shelf life of the product. 
  • The temperature should be constantly monitored with thermometers, ensures food is not stored at the wrong temperature.
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Transportation and storage (Part 2)


Humidity level should be maintained through proper air circulation/flow. 

Levels are affected by the type of packaging and how condensed the food packaging is

  • Air that is too damp = damage food leading to mould growth
  • Air that is too dry = dehydrate food, reduced quality.

Handling Conditions:

Training of staff is essential during this section, to ensure food safety and make sure no food is damaged during transport and handling. 

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Food and the Consumer (Part 1)

Food Patterns Today:

Social and democratic changes have influenced our eating habits. 

  • More working women/Families 
  • Ageing population 
  • Smaller family units 
  • Increased focus on healthy eating, natural/organic foods and fitness have changed peoples eating habits and the type of foods they choose. 

Increased Variety:

  • Creates complexity = how to store, prepare and cook foods
  • Food that keeps for longer = concern for the chemical used in the manufacturing that makes it last.
  • Refrigerators have improved the ability for store food for longer; must be at the correct temperature. 
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Food and the Consumer (Part 2)

3 main risk 

  • Microbes; proliferate in food if not hand correctly 
  • Parasites; transmitted through meat and fish when handled improperly
  • Chemicals; occurs naturally in food and environment

Human error is responsible for a large proportion of foodborne illnesses. Include: 

  • Preparation of food long before consumption/food left too long at a temperature where bacteria grows.  
  • Inadequate heating 
  • Cross contamination between raw and cooked foods.  
  • Contamination through handling 

Good hygiene practices/Informed observation is important for all consumers

  • Read best before/use by dates 
  • Asses the colour, taste, texture and smell of the food = a good measure of freshness 
  • Asses packaging (damaged packaging can shorten shelf life and allow bacteria to proliferate in the food.



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Eating outside the home

Special attention is needed in regards to food safety when eating outside the home - restaurants, hospitals, nursing homes, childcare facilities, schools, canteens, aeroplanes etc.

Special procedures:

  • When preparing a large quantity of food in advance, it important that the temperature in the holding facilities are carefully controlled = to prevent bacteria growth
  • Important to avoid cross-contamination between raw foods and cooked foods

Basic rules to follow when eating outside the home: 

  • Only eat foods that are piping hot. (avoid foods that have been left standing and are lukewarm)
  • Avoid foods that smell or look bad
  • Look for recognised certificates of hygiene (5 star ratings awarded by the foods standard agency) 
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