Respiration

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Glycolysis

This is where glucose is broken down into two molocules called pyruvate

  •  the first thing that happens is ATP is used to attach a phosphate group to the glucose making glucose 6 phosphate
  • this is then changed trough a chemical reaction into fructose 6 phosphate 
  • this then has a nother phosphate added to it makeing hexose 1,6-bisphosphate 
  • this is not very stabel so splits into two more stabel compounds 
  • called triose phosphate
  • these are then converted into an intermediate three carbon compound this produces two ATP's and two Reduced NAD's 
  • the three carbon coumpound is not very stabel so is converted into a molocule called pyruvate one for each of the three carbon molocules. this change also produces enough energy to make two more ATP's
  • Their is an overall net total of 2ATP's & 2 RED NAD's 

(http://web.campbell.edu/faculty/nemecz/323_lect/glycolysis/images/summary1.jpg)

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Glycolysis fill in the blanks

key concepts of glycoloysis 

NAD^+ is a co enzyme that accepts hydrogen atomes to make Reduced NAD 

although 4 ATP's are  produced two were used to power the reaction so their is ony a net gain of 2 

when ATP is used it loses a phosphate becoming ADT 

  • glucose + ___======> ________ 6-P + ___
  • ________6-P is changed into F______6-P 
  • F_________6-P is then changed into hexose __ Bis________ using A__
  • this is then split into ___ triose phosphates 
  • the triose phosphate is then ox________ by NAD^+ produceing one ATP by oxaditive phosophorlation 
  • this changes the triose phosphate into an I_________ three carbon compound 
  • this is not very stabel so it changes into p_________ produceing and ATP
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Answer card

glucose + ATP =======> glucose 6-P + ADP

  • glucose 6-P is changed into Fructose6-P 
  • Fructose 6-P is then changed into hexose 1,6 Bisphosphate using ATP
  • this is then split into two triose phosphates 
  • the triose phosphate is then oxadised by NAD^+ produceing one ATP by oxaditive phosophorlation 
  • this changes the triose phosphate into an intermediate three carbon compound 
  • this is not very stabel so it changes into pyruvate/pyruvic acid  produceing and ATP

From here the pyruvate then enters the links Reaction 

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Links reaction

The links reaction can be summrised as so

2 pyruvates + 2NAD^+) + 2 COA======> 2Carbon dioxides + 2 red NAD + 2Acetyl COA 

  • how this happens 
  • one of the two pyruvates formed during glycoloysis enters the matrix of the mitochondria 
  • Here the pyruvate has hydrogen atoms removed by Pyruvate dehydroganses 
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