Research Methods

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Experimental Design

Independent groups- different participants in each condition.

Repeated measures- same participants used.

Matched pairs- different participants but are matched on key variables to form pairs.

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Hypotheses

Directional- they predict a specific outcome.

Non- directional- they predict a change or difference, but dont state what that is.

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Ethics

PROTECT  FROM HARM

INFORMED CONSENT

DECEPTION

CONFIDENTIALITY

RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

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Reliability

Inter rater reliability- compare results with other people.

Test-retest reliability- same group of people do the experiment again.

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Validity

Internal Validity- the extent to which a study measures what it is designed to.

external validity- can the findings be generalised to other settings?

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Variables

situation variables- time of day, temperature, noise etc.

participant variables- age, gender, skill etc.

investigator effects- behaviour and lamguage of the investigator

participant effects- they search for cues for how to behave in the experiment

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Data

quantitative data- numbers- how much of something you have

qualitative data- measured in words- narrative form

measures of dispersion- the range and standard deviation.

content analysis- how common something is, e.g making catergories from qualititative data.

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