- Created by: lwilson23
- Created on: 11-03-19 21:01
The State of Journalism
- the 1870 Forster Education Act had improved literacy since Crimea, papers such as The Daily Mail cost only one halfpenny - more affordable. Readership much larger.
- as a writer for The Daily Chronicle and Morning Post - Churchill often used scaremongering to inspire change in the army. He also escaped from the Boers so may have viewed them negatively.
- Edgar Wallace was strongly pro-war.
- female writers such as Lady Sarah Wilson covered Baden-Powell's exploits in Mafeking - made him a national hero.
- John Hobson argued in the anti-war paper The Manchester Guardian which argued that the war was only benefitting the rich business owners such as Cecil Rhodes - which was true.
- the variety of war correspondents and the views which they possess shows a massive difference compared to the Crimean war.
Different Papers and their Agendas
- The Daily Mail - positive pro-war
- The Times - balanced (truthful)
- Daily Chronicle - pro-war but critical of army to inspire change
- Morning Post - balanced
- The Manchester Guardian - anti-war (but was vilified due to this)
- The Daily News - anti-war/pro-Boer (set up by Lloyd George)
Shift in Reporting Attitudes
- as the embarassment of the war dragged on, the press started to become less jingoistic.
- after events such as 'Black Week' - the press understandably became very negative - changed perceptions on the Boers being primitive and backwards. 'Farmers'.
- during the guerrilla phase much war reporting stopped (lack of excitement) until Emily Hobhouse - The Manchester Guardian - revealed the horrors of the concentration camps.
- Roberts had a great relationship with the media - known as 'Bobs' back home - transparent.
- Baden-Powell was also given a good rep by the press.
- Kitchener was less loved by the press, constantly being harassed by them took its toll and he got frustrated - stating that 'they do all in their power to encourage the Boers and to dishearten our troops' - which was kind of right in some instances.
- through the anti-war paper The Daily News - David Lloyd George made great political gain.
- good news (e.g.relief of Mafeking) was celebrated in mass demonstrations - 'Mafficking'.
Short/Long Term Influence of the Press
- pamphlets and posters also influenced public opinion.
- for some reason, British troops allowed Hobhouse into the concentration camps - with her reports on the horrific conditions being reported in The Manchester Guardian. Referred to as 'that bloody woman' by Kitchener.
- sparked the Fawcett Commission (headed by Millicent Fawcett) to improve camp conditions - reporting therefore sparked change.
- cameras were more advanced than in Crimea (handheld) brought the war to life, sketch artists also.
- issues revealed by the press during the Boer war meant in future conflicts (WWI) it would be censored. Press meant that the war became a lasting stain on the British Empire.