- "revist the original biblical texts to establish a purer religion"
- Basic principles of the Catholic faith
- Did not challenge belief, challenged the practices
- Thomas More - Utopia
- Erasmus, Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon
- Growth of the printing press allowed the spread of the original bible
- Humanists supported this "new learning"
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- "talking rubbish" - seen as heretics
- Questioned the role of priests
- Christianity shouldn't be based in the Bible
- God was an individual gift - didnt need a priest to intervene e.g confession
- Rejected transubstantiation
- The Bible should be open to interpretation
- Bible in English rather than Latin to allow everyone to have a copy
- Attracted members of the nobility and gentry - "dangerous"
- Majority craftsmen and merchants
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- Based on the ideas of Martin Luther
- "take the church back to its roots"
- Indulgences = corrupt
- Devotion to faith > good works = benefit for the soul/salvation
- Faith was the gift of God to the individual
- Bible Translation into a language people could understand
- Branded a heretic and excommunicated by the Pope
- Very small minority
- None of the nobility/gentry would support them
- Thomas Cramner & Thomas Cromwell influenced
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Believers in royal supremacy
- Challenged the roles & relationships of the Church and the monarchy
- John Wycliff, William Tyndale, Martin Luther
- Pope/Church lacked the power to enforce Church laws without royal assent
- Church should have a regard for state laws
- Sin to oppose the Kings power
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- Protect Catholic beliefs/practices from Protestant ideas
- Thomas More - stressed the importance of a strict hierarchy, all challenges to the existing hierarchy were "dangerous, greatest danger was "heretics". Needed to maintain the unity of Christendom.
- Luther & Tyndales = threats
- Those who preached/published ideas which rejected the Catholic Church should be forced to renounce their views or die.
- Carthusians & Observant Franciscan Friars = were supporters of this
- Henry VIII supported his friend, More.
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The Aragonese Faction
- Faction - informal groups within the Tudor court which had a single focus/cause (interest groups)
- Aragonese Faction - centered around the position of Catherine of Aragon and the protection and loyalty of the Catholic Faith.
- Developed opposition to the power and influence of Cardinal Wolsey
- Thomas More & Bishop Fisher = loose connection
- Lord Darcy, Lord Hussey, Sir Nicholas Carew, Sir Henry Guilford
- Silenced by the execution of its key supporters
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