Pilgrimage of Grace events
- 3 separate risings.
- Began in Lincolnshire 1536 where royal commissioners were looking at dissolving smaller monasteries, collecting tax and inspecting the clergy.
- Captin Cobbler helped seize a commissioner, burn his folders and then march to Louth.
- Violence esculated as Dr Raynes was beaten to death.
- Gentry made grievances and marched to Lincoln.
- 10th October, the King sent them a letter promising harsh punishment, so the gentry fled and the remaining rebels dispersed by the time the King's men reached them.
- 4th October- Aske visited the rebels, read their grievances, took their Oath and took charge of the rebellion.
- He got support from Beverley and Howdenshire and marched to York.
- They kept everything peaceful and asked monasteries in York to resist dissolution.
- Genry took control and didnt take Carlisle so marched towards Pontefract.
- Darcey at Pontefract Castle claimed he didnt have enough resources to hold out against the rebels so submitted to them.
- Darcey joined the rebellion and 30,000 men met at Pontefract Castle (it became the focal point of the rebellion)
Pilgrimage of Grace events continued
- Government began to react- Shrewesbury advanced with 8000 men and Norfolk met with the rebels.
- He got them to abandon the rebellion whilst he gave the king the petition.
- Norfolk promised they'd get a free pardon and parliament to discuss their grievances.
- By January they had still heard nothing.
- Bigod tried to make a rising in January but failed to caputre Carlisle and Scarborough and Hull.
- This gave Henry the opportunity to seek retribution and hang the ringleaders.
Causes of the Pilgrimage of Grace
- Poor harvest.
- Religious causes- they worried that their local parishes would be targetted next
- Intervention of the gentry shows the concerns were from whole communities, not just rich or just the poor.
- 1536 policies caused resentment.
- Could be spontaneous but Gentry leadership and knowing York wasn't ready to rise suggests otherwise.
- Gentry took control of leadership and wrote out the grievances.
- They claimed they joined the rebellion to control it, yet their grievances were also implemented.
- Cobbler claimed he never trusted them.
- Some historians say there was a political conspiracy- the Aragonese faction joined as they wanted Mary back in the succession.
- Hussey, one of the leaders had served in Mary's household
How serious was the rebellion
- Over 30,000 people rebelled.
- The rebels didnt march south so had no interest in capturing London- shows they didnt threaten Henry's position as monarch.
- Threatened goverment as the rebels wanted to change Henry's policies and remove Cromwell.
- Serious as the nobility, who were good leaders, joined in.
Western Rebellion 1549 events
- 1547- riots began in Penryn after William Body got Archdeacon of Cornwall and exploited reform for his own gain.
- 1548 he was murdered.
- Rebellion began after the Prayer Book was enforced and to be used on Whit Sunday.
- Arundell drew up grievances and marched to Devon where a rising in Sampford Courtenay was occuring.
- A local priest was forced to ignore the Prayer Book and return to a traditional mass.
- Gentry didnt interfere after a JP was murdered.
- Carew inflamed the situation.
- The rebels moved to Clyd St Mary where the Denys and Pollards sympathised and didnt want reform until Edward was of age.
- Russell reacted but only had a small inadequate force compared to the rebels.
- Russell wasnt successful in recruiting more men.
- 28th July Russell attacked on the River Otter.
- Rebels dispersed into the West Country.
- 16th August the rebels were defeated at Sampford Courtenay.
Causes of the Western Rebellion
- The rebels made 3 sets of grievances.
- All 3 wanted the church to return to how it was at the end of Henry's reign.
- They didnt want changes until Edward was old enough.
- Arundell may have joined as his family lost influence under Somerset- his brother lost his position of JP and their disgrace gave the Carew family control of the area.
- There wasnt an attack on the monarch.
Kett's Rebellion events
- Cavendish was about to enclose common land.
- The commons responded by blowing up rabbit warrens.
- Attacks on enclosures were carried out in other parts of Norfolk.
- In Norfolk, Flowerdew enclosed old monastic land and claimed ownership of it.
- The residents said it belonged to the parish and wanted to use it but Flowerdew wanted to knock it down.
- Flowerdew's fences were attacked and he tried to impliment Kett's enclosures so he sympathised and took control of the rebellion
- They were denied into Norwich so they set up camp at Mousehold Heath with 16000 men.
- They created the Norfolk articles and sent them to Somerset as a petition.
- More camps were made in Suffolk, Kent and Cambridge
- Gentry and government weren't attacked and none of them were attempted to be recruited.
- 22nd July- took Norwich but treated authorities with respect.
- Imprisoned Aldermen in comfort.
- Northampton offered a full pardon to rebels that dispersed.
- Rebels refused and attacked the city, causing Lord Sheffield.
- Kett recurited in Yarmouth but Warwick's force trapped the rebels.
- Warwick and Kett negociated everyone but Kett would get a free pardon but his men created a squirmish so they couldnt get a peaceful outcome.
- More mercenaries joined Warwick, 300 rebels died and Kett was executed.
Kett Rebellion causes and grievances
- Many of the poor residents were too poor yet forced to pay tax.
- There was an increase in foreigners and beggars.
- Norfolk articles- religious nature, each grievance began with 'we pray that'.
- Some spoke about quality of the clergy.
- Others spoke about tax.
- Some spoke about royal officials and their abuse of powers.
- Many spoke about economic rights and justice.
The fact they sent petitions to higher government shows they thought their local leaders were responsible and weren’t threatening central government or Tudor state.
Somerset sympathised with the governments neglect of the rebels’ villages, may have caused the rebellion.
Wyatt's Rebellion events
- Wyatt wanted to appeal to religious fears due to Mary's succession.
- Councillors feared losing influence if Mary married Philip of Spain.
- The plan was to marry Mary to Courtenay due to his Aragonese links but she insisted on the Spanish marriage which worried the French ambassador.
- Wyatt co-ordinated risings in Hertfordshire under Croft, Devon under Carew, Leicester under Suffolk and Kent under Wyatt
- Plans of the rebellion leaked so only Wyatt got an adequate force and raised 3000 men.
- Closeness to London made them try and take the capital.
- He wanted to seize the Queen and change her intentions, if this failed he would replace her with Elizabeth.
- Mary considered leaving but appealed to London.
- Pembrooke's forces let them pass.
- They found opposition at Ludgate and were trapped.
- Wyatt surrendered and the leaders were executed.
- Lady Jane Grey and her husband were executed so no more rebellions could be made trying to replace Mary with her.
Cause of the Wyatt Rebellion
- Mary's marriage to Philip of Spain.
- Wyatt appealed to patriotism saying Spain would dominate England and subject them to their methods.
- Many of the rebels were Protestant but Wyatt disclaimed religious motives.
- Courtenay was easily manipulated, as shown when he easily confessed to Gardiner.
- Carew had the necessary contacts to plan all the risings.
- Being anti-spanish may have been the easiest way to get support.
Northern Rebellion 1569 events
- A plan to marry Mary Queen of Scots to Norfolk after she arrived in England.
- Elizabeth found out and was furious, causing Norfolk to flee.
- Norfolk wanted to take action with Neville and Percy as they didnt like the church settlement and lost the positions Mary gave them on the council.
- They planned to force Elizabeth to proclaim Mary as her heir.
- After Norfolk's men refused to act he threw himself on Elizabeth's mercy.
- Catholic allies kept urging Neville and Percy to act.
- They met with the Council of the North and didnt show up at parliament after Elizabeth called them.
- They raised forces after Lady Westmorland called them cowards.
- they raised 5,500 troops and expected help from Lancashire and Spain but it never showed.
- They hesitated when they heard Mary was being moved south and heard Warwick was making a force against them.
- They retreated and captured Bernard Castle.
- They got no help from Scotland.
- They gave up hope and fled to Scotland.
- Northumberland was given up and executed for treason.
Seriousness of Northen Rebellion
- lacked widespread support.
- threatened Elizabeth's position.
- Chance of foreign interference.