Reasons for Beliefs
Reasons to believe in God
Religious Upbringing, Answered Prayer, Numinous experience
Reasons to not believe in God
Believe in Evolution and Big Bang Theory
- Going to religious school, reading holy books, participating in celebrations e.g. Christmas and Easter, learning how to pray and being initiated into the religion e.g. Baptism
- All of the above make it natural for a person to believe in God as it reinforces what they are told is true by their parents
- Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Communion - Roman Catholic children
- Answered Prayer
- Numinous Experience
Why may this lead to a belief in God?
You may believe that the event cannot be explained by anything but God. Conversion experiences may lead to someone wanting to give their life to God - charismatic phenomena. Also, they may feel in contact with God (mystical experience)? A numinous experience also may make you believe in God, as of awe and wonder.
Other possible explanations
- Psychologically induced
- Can actually be explained by science
- Science is constantly developing so it may be explained in the future
- There are over 7 billion people in the world - there are bound to be unusual experiences for some
Cause and Effect (Thomas Aquinas)
- Everything has a cause
- Each effect has a prior cause, which can be explained
- It would be absurd to think that there was not something that started it off - since everything has a starting point
- The chain of cause leads us back to God
- As God is omnipotent, the First Cause must be God
Design (William Paley)
- A watch is very complex. It is not created by chance - there must be a watchmaker who designed it
- This logic applies to the world - our world shows evidence of design - the human body, temperatures etc (Goldilocks Effect)
- Therefore, it must have been designed by this
- The designer must be God as he is omnipotent
The Big Bang Theory
The universe began in an explosion of energy and matter. This matter was compact and in a single point and the pressure build up to form and explosion. At this point, time and universe began. As the matter cooled, it formed stars, planets etc. Evidence: Red Shift, Cosmic Background Radiation
Charles Darwin believed that all life originated from simple cells. As these cells developed, they became more complex. Life on earth evolved through a process of natural selection (i.e. the survival of the fittest)
How does this show God doesn't exist?
Neither ideas involve God and it shows God is not necessary to understand the beginning of the Universe. Also, Evolution completely undermines the idea that God created everything. The Big Bang Theory completely undermines the Genesis story. It also suggests the universe is millions of years old, whereas evolution suggests it is millions of years old
Types of Evil
Natural evil -> not caused by humans e.g. earthquakes
Moral evil -> caused by humans
God is believed to be: omnipotent, omnibenevolant and omniscient. These three cannot work together, proving either God does not exist or he is not all three things
Problems of Moral Evil and Natural Evil
Why does natural evil even occur - why did God create it for his people? God created everything to be perfect - how does this explain natural evil? Also natural evil does not discriminate against those who commit sin and those who do not?
Humans are supposed to be made in the image of God?
Christians may respond to this by using the idea of three will and the idea of ultimately going to heaven.
Life After Death
Non Religious People
Reasons to think there is life after death - evidence of ghosts, near death experiences
Reasons to think there is not - No scientific evidence, death means the end of life so it is logically impossible, we only recognise eachother as of our body - how could we do this otherwise?
Resurrection: Jesus' teaching of the Sheep and the Goats (sheep will go to Heaven). The belief that your body will rise from the dead to be judged on the Day of Judgement
Heaven and Hell: Heaven is a paradise where there will be no more death or morning. Some believe it is a physical place, whereas others say it is being cut off from God. Some believe there is no hell because Jesus said that there are many rooms in his father's house. Roman Catholics also believe in purgatory (as written in the Catholic teachings)
Immortality of the Soul: The soul lives on after the death of the body. When you die you pass straight to a level of heaven which fits the type of person you are, meaning there is no hell (writings of St Paul)
Islamic views on Life after Death
- Heaven and Hell
- At death, two angels will question the soul asking 'Who is your Lord? What is your relgion?'. Those who know the answers remain in comfort until the Day of Judgement - Muhammed taught
- Resurrection - the body remains in the ground until the end of time when it is raised and judgement occurs
- Qu'ran describes heaven as a physical place
Legally, in the UK, abortions can take place right up to birth but only if the mother's life is in danger. It can take place up to 24 weeks in other circumstances and only if 2 doctors agree with it. They can only agree if the mother, foetus or existing children will be mentally or physically afected by it. The father has no rights.
Non Religious Views
For - Mother's rights come before the foetus', if the child is not going to have a good quality of life, there is no point in it being born - saving it from suffering. It is the woman's body and her choice.
Against - believe that life begins as soon as the egg is fertilised as all of the DNA is now present, so it is essentially murder. Even if the child is disabled or has a poor quality of life - this is no reason to kill it!
Religious Views on Abortion
Generally against -'God gives life and only God can take it away', sanctity of life, 'Do not kill', 'I knew you before you were born'
Exceptional Circumstances - Only allowed in the case of a ectopic pregnancy (developing in the fallopian tube) as it a prime intention to save the mother's life. Protestants believe that it can sometimes be the lesser of two evils
Generally against - Sanctity of Life, Shirk - a sin to act like God as life belongs to Allah, on Judgement day the mother will have to explain to the unborn why it was aborted
Exceptional circumstances - Ensoulment - up to 4 months the mother has greater rights, Shari'ah also states that the mother's life is a priority since as the loss of the mother would be a lot more severe on the family
Different types of Euthanasia
Voluntary - When a patient asks a doctor to end their life when they are unable to do it for themselves
Non-voluntary - When a doctor ends a patient's life in their best interests
Active Euthanasia - An action which directly causes death
Passive Euthanasia - When treatment is withdrawn or death death occurs as a side effect
Euthanasia is illegal. It is also illegal to help someone commit suicide (assisted suicide)
Non relgious views
For - In the best interests of the patient and you should have control over your life. If the person is technically dead, it is acceptable
Against - There is always a chance that someone could recover, death is permanent and someone could change their mind
Religious Views on Euthanasia
Against - Sanctity of Life, 'The Lord Gives and takes away', 'Do not Kill'
Exceptional Circumstances - Allow life support machines to be switched off since the person is technically dead (so God has already decided). The machine is only artificially keeping them alive. Jesus was also compassionate - surely we should show compassion to those who are sufering.
Against - Only Allah gives life and ends it, it is a sin to act like him (Shirk), Sanctity of Life, Life is a test and to end life is to cheat the test. Also, in the Qur'an Muhammed forbade a soldier dying on the battlefield from taking his own life.
Exceptional Circumstances - Allah is compassionate - this could be applied to ending suffering. Muslim lawyers have argued that it could be allowed if it is switching off a life support for someone who is technically dead
Matters of Life and Death in the Media
Should the media be free to criticise religious views on abortion and euthanasia?
Media may be influenced/biased - e.g. director may be an athiest
Lead to discrimination against religious groups
Freedom of speech
Balanced opinion - seeing both sides of the argument to let people make their own mind up
Religion isn't necessarily right and we should challenge this
How have attitudes to marriage and family life cha
- Less people are getting married
- Couples are choosing to cohabit
- 40% of marriages now end in divorce - women's rights and easier and cheaper to obtain
- More reconstitute families with step siblings and half siblings
- Women having babies later in life - choosing careers instead
- Less time spent with the family
Attitudes to sex have also changed in society. It is more acceptable to have pre-maritial sex and promiscuity is more acceptable. Adultery is also less frowned upon than it was in the past (more common?)
Roman Catholics do not accept divorce as being married is a sacrament (a gift from God) where the couple become 'one flesh'. An annulement (a declaration that the marriage was not a true marriage) is acceptable. You have to get one from the Church.
Protestants allow it because they recognise that some marriages will fail and Jesus taught forgiveness. It also is the lesser of two evils and Jesus allowed it in the case of adultery
Free Churches argue that when love dies, so does the marriage
Against - Family is the basis of society and divorce threatens this and are told divorce is most hated by Allah
It is possible to seek a divorce if it is the last resort. There are also regulations e.g. if someone is in prison. To do so, you must declare the intention to divorce 3 times in one month, you then must live together (iddah) for 3 months to ensure the wife is not pregnant and then you can remarry
Some Muslims allow divorce, as it is a contract and it can be ended
Religious Views on Family Life
- Very important - it is the purpose of marriage
- 'Honour your parents'
- God is a good father and Mary as a mother provides a role model for parents
- At baptism, the child is given godparents to support the parents
- Church is seen as an extended family
- Church provides support groups for the family
- Extended families live together
- Parents expected to bring children up as Muslims
- Everyone is expected to have children
- Duties of parents and children laid out in the Qu'ran
- Family is the basis of an Islamic Socity
Religious Attitudes to Sex
Christians and Muslims both believe that Sex should only be within marriage and both frown upon promiscuity and pre-marital Sex
Sex carries the possibility of creating children and both religions teach that children need the stability of family.
Promiscuity is frowned upon because people are treating their bodies as objects and Christians teach that the 'body is the temple of the Holy Spirit'
Adultery threatens the stability of marriage and goes against the marriage vows. It is in the 10 commandments in Christianity and in some Islamic countries it carries the death penalty
Some more modern Muslims and Christians believe that this is outdated, as contraception is a lot more reliable these days
Traditionaly most Christians have been against contracpetion, believing that sex should only occur within a marriage for the purpose of creating children.
Roman Catholic's still believe it is a grave sin as they were told to 'be fruitful and multiply'. They only allow natural methods (e.g. rhythm method') as it is not directly preventing the process of procreation in an unnatural way
Protestants allow barrier methods, as a responsible method of family planning and the lesser of two evils.
Most Christians are against the use of the coil (IUD) and morning after pill as they are seen to be like an abortion.
Contraception is not mentioned in the Qu'ran but Muslims are expected to have children, so it must be a sin (only Allah has the right to decide). Muslims allow it in cases when being pregnant might threaten the mother's health. It is also better to avoid being pregnant than to have an abortion
Religious Attitudes on Homosexuality
Accept - God created everyone in his image, love your neighbour, friendships of David and Jonathan
Reject - Bible says that homosexuals will be 'vomited out of the land', Sex is for creating children and this can only happen with a man and a woman, Adam and Eve were a woman and a man
Accept - Allah created everyonw, world is made like a flower garden - different people as part of one deign
Reject - All Muslims expected to have children, rejected by Shari'ah law, seen as a sin, illegal in some Islamic countries
The Role of Women
In the last 100 years, the role of women in society has changed greatly
e.g. Sufragette movement, right to vote in 1918, world war 2 and women's roles, Sex Discrimination Act and Equal Pay Acts in 1970s, First Female PM in 1917
Traditionally men were dominant (male disciples). The Roman Catholic Church teaches that men and women are equal but it says that only men can be priests. Attitudes are changing and now women can be vicars in the CofE (since 1994).
In the Bible, Jesus treated men and women equally and they were created equally at the same time in the creations story, however Eve was only made because Adam was lonely. Also, St Paul wrote: 'wives submit to your husbands'
Traditionally men were dominant - they are equal but have different purposes in life because of biological differences. Each role is considered equal in value. However, women only inherit half of what a man does. Both, however, have an equal right to education, as Muhammed's wife was a businesss woman. 'All people are equal..as the teeth of a comb'
Britain as a Multi-Faith Society
Britain is a multi faith society as there are many different races and religions living in the country. Since the Catholic Emancipation Act (1932), people of different religions have enjoyed equal rights). Since 2000, laws have been passed to ensure that people are not discriminated against on grounds of religion.
Advantages: helps you to question your own beliefs, promotes understanding between people, variation in culture
Disadvantages: Exlusivism, people trying to convert others = racist, discrimination
How does the government deal with community cohesion?
Set up a 'Britishness test' that all new Immigrants of the UK must take, so that all immigrants have basic knowledge of British life. They also must be able to speak English.
Community Facilitation Programme and Neighbourhood renewal Unit - set up to ensure that local ethnic communities are able to develop the skills needed to work and ensure opportunities for all
Attitudes to Racism
Christians - against racism, everyone is created in the image of God, Jesus makes the hero of the Samaritans to most hated group of people, Christians are many races, St Peter has a vision from God telling him that God has no favourites, Love Your Neighbour
Islam - against racism, everyone is equal like the teeth of a comb, Ummah (Muslim Communisty is multi-racial and multi-cultural, Muhammed chose a black Ethiopian to do the first call of prayer, when Muslims go on Hajj they all dress in white to show they are equal in the eyes of God
How do religions promote cohesion?
Council for Jews, Interfaith Network etc try to promote understanding and harmony. They work on the basis that God created all humans. At official functions, leaders of all the faith communities appear and pray together