Use of Semia over Dunameis suggesting a signpost (Barrett) rather than just an act of power as in the synoptic accounts. Also Erga suggesting divinity and Oth as in the OT- a continuation (Hunter)
No exorsims as Jews familiar with them, mircales and supernatural events pointing to wider ideas
20:31 and stimulating belief central- Boice suggests for early perseucted Christians
Marsh suggests both historical and theolgoical
Eternal life rather than kingdom of God to show a choice and need for active beleif
17 signs- Hunter, focus on however many in the question.
Sign 1 Water into wine
Location- Cana link to Cannan or with sign 2 as both elicit faith and releive need (sanders and Mastin) brown suggests they both follow pattern of no faith, sign then faith
Person of Jesus- Shown in the sign with the idea of bridgegroom from OT- blood of christ in contrast to OT lamb sacrifice (Marsh) and shown with clearing temple post sign. Person is divine with abundant production of 180 Gallons (Kruse) and also with instant word of command, "Women" seperate from his mother. Humanity seen with attending the weding, providing wine in cultural awkward situation. Genesis link with production of wine and wedding- continuation
Fulfils Judaism- 6 stone jars dead without the precence of christ (dodd) and shows deficancy of the Torah (Marsh). Not the perfect number of 7 and need the precence of christ. mark 2:22 old wine must be removed for the new wine to take place. Jesus is the best wine until last- new covernant. A new age of fulfilment- Kruse
Beleif- shown with the faith followed with the servents who do not question Jesus (cultrual emphasis) and the fact that the diciples beleive. Sanders and Mastin suggest a 20:31 b focus whilst doubuted with people at wedding at master- true beleif or understanding?
Sacremental link seen with the wine of christ, doubted by Dodd. S and M doubt deacon link
Sign 2 Healing of the officers son
Location of Cana links first and second sign and Canna ideas. Allegory of the son who is near to death- foreshadowing the passion and resurection (doubted by Sanders and Mastin).
person- impact of Jesus turns from a negative "your son will die" to a negative "your son will live" brown suggests the life giving power of Jesus is the main purpose of the sign. The divinity is seen witht the healing being done instantly and at a distance shown with man in sign. Carson- ability to complete the sign does show divintiy.
Fulfiling Judaism- Shown with progression as marsh showes from Pharisee to Samartian to Gentile, dark to light- Brown. Timing doubted by S and M and Carson. Although showes this, s and m suggest herodian- synoptic suggest otherwise- Centurion is a roman gentile further link to acrs 10/11 corelius
Beleif- the man could be seen to beelive instantly, he delays (s and m) although because of signs and wonders as shown in 46? 20;31 importance without seeing although seems true belief
Carson- may be just helping the boy, human aspect.
Sign 3- Healing of the cr*p*le at the pool
Location of Jerosolum- Passion reference and of the idea of Bethedsa- house of mercy/ well known
Person- Divinie as seen with instant healing after 38 years, knowing with locating the man (Kruse) and human aspect seen with helping. Friend to the friendless and helps the helpless- Barclay. Life giving power with spritual focus. link to the father as both are working
Gurthrie- physical sin a result of spritual disobediance further recognised with Augustine ideas
Beleif- Need to beleive but the man returns, a foil to the second sign (s and m) as Barlcay shows met with contemplation when should be met with Joy. Or does he return to find Jesus? Loves the darkness with informing the Jews
Replacing Judaism- Seen with the Sabath contreversy, Jesus overwhelms the law to give life (Dodd) instead of legalistic Torah adherance. 5 colonades surround pool, the torah (Marsh). Link to Deut 2:14 following Moses for 38 years- Judaism not good enough. after, Rabbi sabath discussion
Synoptic comparison- Richardson- showes the baptism ideas (tasker) doubted by Barrett and sheepgate eucheristic ideas and also seenw with the sheep gate- eucherist
Sign 4- The feeding of the 5000
Gaililee- lack of faith seen with sigs and wonders ideas
person- showes the provider of Jesus whose bones not broken as the bread isnt- passion ideas. gives out the bread himeself and divine with peace be with you. feeds 15,000- Milne showing divinity. Barrett- intense messianic excitiment. human seen with leaving to stop confrentation. Shown to be the new moses (Marsh) as on the mountain but doubted by Dodd. Divine- Barley (poor mans bread) to 15,000
Beleif- must share in the messianic baquet but misunderstanding even with Phillip. Think a deut link and exodus reference- sticking to the law not true beleif. True faith is not present
Replacing Judaism -Seen with linkt to 2 kings in which Elisha feeds 100, Jesus feeds 15,000- Marsh suggests link with barley. contrast to the OT manna which would spoil, could have as much as they wanted. progression seen with 12 baskets- 12 tribes of israel or brothers of Joseph- collected to 1
Synoptic comparison seen with no teaching or healing to focus on feeding (kruse) and spritual emphasis (S and M)
Sacremental- The "insitutuion of the eucherist" (Marsh) and one which is seen with jesus giving it out himeself. eschatolgocial consideration must eat the bread of christ. S and M link to sign 1
A02 Issue 1: Purpose
20:31 main purpose- Milne, Kruse. Complex purpose seen with the need for beleif or continued beleif. Carson- main purpose of sign 1. Need active beleif- Marsh suggests eternal life, salvation and full beleif required. Not through signs and wonders as s and m suggest complete faith favoured in sign 2. Kruse
No good purpose- lack of understanding and redaction or protryal. But ensures understanding and wider issues in contrast to synoptic gospel parables, inclusion of explanation/ following discourse
Eschatological purpose-lamb of God ideas of Marsh showes that realsied eschatolgy a focal point. The sacremental purpose of the sacremental meal, and salvation ideas with cross being foreshadowed
Person of Jesus- Takser showes with conection to the father, Milne glory in sign 1 and 2, sign 3 withacare. coffman- sprituality and divnity of Jesus shown. Carson in sign 2. humanity apsects, passove r lamb, rich statemnts- Kruse
Replacing Judaism - Tasker around need for Jewish sign, Gill to show Messiah. Replacement seen in sign 3- Dodd, the new Moses ideas etc
A02 Issue 2: Interpretation of people at the time
Who where the people at the time- Jews, Gentiles, Romans, Beleivers
Lack of understanding as not many beleive eg in sign 4, sign 3 a foil, sign 2 signs and wonders and true extent of all in sign 1? Jews misunderstand all the way through- in every sign
P+R (cross is foreshadowed) and sacremental eucherist ideas (Barclay sacremental meal in sign 4) not happened yet so they are not understood
Symbolism- John has own theology (Smalley) symbolism and complex issues needs backround so understood fully? Also seen with S and M idea of timing manipulation, also with place names etc
To an extent- some understanding importance of 20:31, Cultural ideas understood eg wine ideas. Jews would have understood the Exodus motifs which are abound.
Some understanding with sign 1, sign 4- jews beleive he is the messiah- S and M. Depends to extent. Is meaning added later so people do understand well/
AO2 Issue 3: Historicity
Marsh- Not mutally exslusive as can be historical and theolgoical, must evaluate the evidence for one
Historial- seen with loose corooboration with the synoptic gospels- same structure. geographical and typographical detail seen with the building on marcan details in sign 4 with grass and detachements. Although butlman suggests dramtiased, Marsh suggests an event when Jesus fed the people
Theolgocial ideas taken to far- Barret sees no link to the pool in sign 3, S and M ideas, doubting of Dodd of the new moses ideas- histroical not theoglocial. Michaels- archeolgoical discovery of the sheepgate with christian deacon evidence. Sanders and Mastin- timings realistic. Divine can be also
Theological- main aim of the gospel is 20:31 not to show historical with other purposes shown to be theolgociall. Theological differences with the synoptic gospels showes John was not historic.
Spritual gospel- C of A, when John uses detail for theology- S and M and Brown suggrsts not one detail is not there for theolgy consideration. Important eucheristic ideas for example show the importance of this
Overall for one to consider, not mutually exslcusive. kruse0 difference ssuspect, Takser for theolgocial gain
AO2 Issue 4: understanding of christian theology n
It could be argued it is not needed if it is deemed historical- Westcott historical basis, or cultural understanding more vital with a cultural duel central eg wine, sabbath ideas
Spirtual and symbolic nature could show not needed, person portayal even with 2:14 link?
20:31 showes not needed,
Smalley- infers biblical background, barrett need Ot as seen with exodus motifs abound showing that an understanding is needed
Cross foreshadwoed and sacrements would be overlooked, Dodd unlike any other NT books need an exssential background. Signficance of 7 missed- Dodd and fulfilment of scriputre overlooked.
Marsh0 want happened and what went on, Kruse- rich chrisotlgocial statements would be overlooked and loss of signacne.
Passion Portrayal of Jesus
4 main themes- enothornement, glory, passover lamb, expression of Gods love (Kysar)
Kingship- seen with kingship motif (Brown), with the robes and the crown ( s and m) the enthronement on the cross (kysar) Also seen with Marsh who suggests Jesus more truthful when he knowes. Romans 13:1- Jesus the true king though not of this world (marsh)
Control- the hour 12:32 in contrast to 2:4, control in the garden, over pilate with roles reversed (Marsh) with use of language (Barett). Carson suggest use of silence and kruse onto kingdom of God, carries his own cross, contrast to Judas
Expedient- Brown chooses to die, wantrs the cup of suffering (s and m).. Glorified through this with no element of fear or weaknerss, i am he link to exodus 3:6. Also seen with fulfilling scripture 13:1, 8:28 shows he is son of god, 3:14-method of death showes fulfiment- uplifitng with glory
Passover lamb- seen with hysop link and suggested by Barrett, Jesus is th enew passover lamb as the jews lamb is being prepared. the good shepard- dodd who ensures beleif. contrst to ot lamb practice but guides beleivers into beleif and escrhagoloy
Human and divine shown with innocence in 18, man in 19, floging, barclay thinking of mother on cross, no violence in Gethsemane, love of his followrs, divine with carrying own cross, sending of 600, effect on the soldiers and piulate, resurection act after.
Passion other themes
Belief- shown with discussion about truth with pilate, Carson showes dissent of shame with rooster crow (Marsh). Carson shows peter even tries to stop divine mision- lack of understanding but hope as in resurection so for believers.
Replacing Judaism -Seen with Babbabus (a rare custom with Kruse showing this) and also coming in the dark. releasing a bandit- so wrong and dark motif (smalley) culpepper suggests loves the darkness rather than the light, bring a lantern. shown with nichodemus also. Kruse- elders with the crowd, fragility of the chage attempts of Pilate. Grassi- fulfilment shown with new family of God, Marsh between mary and BD judaism and Christinaity also Glasson suggests incomaptible.
Sacremental link- seen with blood and water showing clensing- richardson with blood and baptism waters. tasker and carson sugges batpism, Micahels suggest eternal life shown as a result of christs death.
Passion Fulfillment of scripture
Shown with the new adam ideas with garden- the last conflict and Issac carries own cross although doubted by s and m
Zechariah with blood and water, isiah in the middle, exodus 12- bones, exodus 28 garments which semales link to high preist (marsh) and progression of early church. Pslam 69 i thirst, pslam 22- on the cross quotes. Marsh irony from 1:11- not recieved by all
Pslam 22- Ommits why have you forsaken me but includes ideas on bones, i thirst and garments
Grayson- link to sign 1 with blood and water clensing and replacment ideas. also with leviticus ideas of cleansing a leaper
Resurrection Narrative, portrayal of Jesus
Jesus seen as divine in Resurection with response of the diciples cold and hunry to warm and fulfilled, divine with angels (Carson) seperate from mother, 153 creation, act of resurection, movment through clothes- barrett, stone moved
Authoirty- retained througout with powers of judgement passed onto diciples and orders for the fish 153 catch. Humanity retained with rabboni, loves his followers returning to them, Carson- intamacy of the fourth gospel
Good shepard- tasker suggests continuing from the passion through themes of beleif and 20:31 protecting his flock and ensuring beleif. Mary recognsies Jesus when called by name
Resurrection Narrative, other themes
Beleif- shown with Mary who is in the dark until with Jesus. Shown with the role of Thomas as Dodd suggests that other diciples where doing the same, emphasising the issue. Fortuna- showes role for early beleivers of whom would not have emprical evidence. Barrett- unthinkable return of diciples, they still need beleif and the lord and the effect of this is seen. the use of the word kurios to show beleif and kruse shows active 20:31 belif needed.
Replacing Judaism- seen with angels (Carson)
Sacremental- euchersitc ideas of the last supper (bultman at the end of the chapter)
hyperbolic- kruse shows new age of fulfilment, Carson from Messianic age to age of Gods soverignity
Beloved diciple and Peter contrasted although Brown suggests not to take anyhting away from Peter but to highlight the role of BD. BD wins the race, enough evidence for beleif whilst Peter is recklass and unkowing throughout. although tasker showes that peter meets the lord first- hope and perfection not needed. just desired stace of dicipleship
Role of Peter- shown with the 3 proclemations of love making up for the early denials, Brown. Jesus not looking for perfection and takes phileo love over agape love, vital charcterisrc for leading the early church. he passes from sin nak*d in the boat to clensing through the medium of water. the importance of this is that he leads the church from the lamb to the sheep to the entire flock - Banrd with such progression seen with unbroken net and 153 fish, carson suggests is 10 commandments and holy spriit in rev 1:4
A02 Issue 1: Historicity
Could be argued not mutually exclusive concepts as can be both - Marsh who also shows need to evalaute evidence for oneslef
corroboration with 500 blibcal sources, acts, corinthians, Josephus, talamud sanderhin 43a, ingitius, tertullian etc, brown shows 21:24, Mary unlikely witness makes more historical + synoptic similarties
Use of place names and eye witness details seen with castle of antonia- Barrett, kirdon valley, the right ear of malchus. Realsitic events eg role of Annas, Pilate etc
theolgocial points taken to far-S and M normal reaction blood and water and brown- normal action of a soldier. Slap normal in court -marsh although barrett- theolgocial role of clensing idea
Although importance of 20:31 over historical account + other purposes shown with differences to the synoptics- takser suggests spiritual emphasis and Kruse- suspect- diferences to show person
construction of pilate- fortuna suggests vital for salvation ideas, barabbas to a rare custom suggests not historical. gibbon doubts history and schitzer suggests didnt happen. kriby explanations on resurection
A02 Issue 2: Passion v Resurection
More focus on the passion because led up to with the idea of the hour, accomplished on the cross and finished- marsh suggests the natural victory is on the cross. important theolgocial considerations of the lamb of god ideas and nichodmeus, through the death of christ this has been led up to.
the many different presentations of Jesus with the rich chrisotlgical statements and theolgcal importance of differences with synoptic accounts
21 a redaction- Tasker and Marsh suggests that the differwnt literary style shows this
resurection focus with the ideas of thomas consturction and progression early church vital for new state of jesus and vital christian message- peter walker
the progresion filled with Job to Isiah to John- fills a vital gap
can they be seperated? tasker suggests that death, burial and resurection are one event and Marsh suggests cross is forshadwed links to this and link of location between mary and jesus death
equal treatement? subjective focus
A02 issue 3: Salvation
Kysar suggests a major part of the gospel, shown with kruse in both with ideas on present eschatology- future are redactions only. thus the emphasis of salvation is on realsied eschatology. One event may show that a vital emphasis. or other concepts more vital, seen elswhere- lazarus the crux (marsh) or samartian women instead. Jesus thinks of his mother on cross when salvation in balance (human focus)
Seen in passion with idea of Nichodemus of whom ensures salvtion and also with the death of Jesus salvation is made possible
presentation of Jesus as the passover lamb- shows important salvation ideas, rich crhistological statements
Resurection seen with role of Thomas of whom showes salvation and 20:31 emphasis on beleif through salvation
holy spirit availbiltiy is in the resurection instead of he passion.
AO2 Issue 4: really christian theology?
Could be argued more of a duel between the roman empire and Christinaity suggested by Richardson. Could also be argued the symbolic nature of the gospel as John has his own theology cant be considered christian theology
could be seen to have more of a histroical basis rather than christian theology- different from synoptics also.
But does fulfil scripture from the Old testement so must be seen as christian theology
Wayne jackson- vital impact
Peter walker/ Brown vitla message of resurected Jesus
any documentation on Jesus even if histrocial must be seen as christian theology. messages of eternal, life, salvation, 20:31 are central now. modernist christians doubut histroicl value but still vital for theolgoy
similar to synoptics- must be deemed as christian theology if synoptics gospels are to be