Why do Wars Occur
-Causes of war are self defence, for resources, fear, national pride, fighting against injustice, racial or ethnic hatred and protecting the weak from persecution or exploitation.
-In Darfur there was a civil war between the Sudanese army and different non-Arab groups which split Sudan into two countries, Sudan and South Sudan.
-The war was caused by a long standing ethnic hatred between Arabs & non Arabs, national pride with some wanting an independant South Sudan, food and water shortages also caused frustration with the government.
The UN and World Peace
-The UN is an international body set up after WW2 to promote world peace and cooperation.
-The UN uses conflict resolution and reconcilliation.
-The range of methods that are used consist of arms control, disarment to reduce numbers of WMDs, peace talks, trade restrictions, peacekeeping forces and millitary action.
-The basic aim is world peace and are concerned with issues that will have a long term mpact on world peace like fighting poverty.
-After the UN became aware of the Darfur conflict the UN negotiated between the 2 sides and sanctioned Sudan from trading oil, deployed it's own peacekeeping force however peace is not yet fullt achieved.
Religious Organisations and World Peace
-Jesus taught the need or forgiveness, peace and unity.
-The world council of Churches encourages all types of Christians to heal divisions between nations by talking.
-Peace and freedom are essential principles of Islam and Islamic relief was founded to help war victims.
-Religious organisations teach forgiveness, hold interfaith conferences, campaign against opressive governments, hold peace vigils, encourage peace talks, help victims who are suffering from injustice, educate all involved and encourage non violence.
Just War Theory
-A just war is one fought for the right reasons in the right way so can be justified.
-For a just war, no innocent civilians will be killed, there is a reasonable chance of success, it is fought with the aim of bringing peace, it is a last resort, the methods used are fair and reasonable and the cause of war is just.
-Issues are that both sides may claim their cause is just plus it may be manipulated by leaders to justify opinions.
Christian Attitudes to War
-The bible teaches Christians to find peace and reconcilliation with enemies although attitudes to war differ.
-Some Christians would follow the just war theory as it has been accepted by many teachings and some bible teachings seem to support it.
-More reasons for this are that Jesus taught people should people should be obedient to the government, sometimes violence is a necessary response, there are situations were war is the lesser of two evils and it is right to have a millitary for protection.
-Other Christians follow pacifism and refuse to fight in wars as the decalogue forbids killing, Jesus stopped his followers from using violence, Jesus taught that people should love their enemies and WMDs cause unimaginable suffering.
-Absolute Pacifism is no engagement in millitary action.
-Relative pacifism is engagement in millitary action in certain circumstances.
-Nuclear pacifism is no use of nuclear weapons.
Muslim Attitudes to war
-Peace is a key principle of Islam but the Qur'an teaches that it will not be easy and Jihad is an Islamic term meaning struggle.
-Lesser jihad is a just war theory and is a physical struggle of war which tells circumstances when violence is allowed. It is fought for a just cause, as a last resort, authorised by a muslim authority, mininum amount of suffering is caused, ends when the enemy surrenders, innocent civilians are not attacked and the aim is to restore peace and freedom.
-Greater jihad is the struggle of muslims to bring them closer to god with things like going to the mosque.
-Some Muslims believe war is never right as peace is at the heart of Islam and the Qur'an's teachings, modern weapons cannot be used in a way that is compatible with muslim war rules, non violence is the only way to reach peace and violence only leads to more violence
Christian Attitudes to Bullying
-Bullying is intimating people by physical harm, stealing or damaging others' property, cyberbullying, calling people's names or accusing things they haven't done to get them into trouble.
-The reasons why some people bully is that they may want to look tough, have problems at home, problems with others.
-The samaritans are a UK charity that offers support to bullying victims and alot of volunteers are Christians.
-All Christians believe bullying is wrong as violence without cause is against Christian teachings, every individual was created by god and disrespecting them is disrespecting god's creation, Jesus taught that people should love one another and the goldenn rule, everyone deserves respect and the bible teaches that god will take action against cruelty.
Muslim Attitudes to Bullying
-Muslims are opposed to all forms of bullying as Islam teaches agression without cause is wrong,Muhammad taught that Muslims should protect the weak and vulnerable, all Muslims believe on the last day they will be judged by Allah on how they lived their lives, Islam teaches Muslims to end cruelty and every person was created by Allah so his creation deserves respect.
-Muslims may support organisations that help bulling victims as the Qur'an teaches Muslims to work together to end wrongdoing.
-Childline is a free confidential helpline for children and has offered advice to schools to tackle bullying by getting everyone in school to tackle bullying, put up anti-bullying posters, educate about bullying, make sure there are enough staff to watch for bullying and set up counselling schemes for support.
Religious Conflict Within Families
-Causes of conflict in religious families are improper social behaviour, moral issues like abortions, jobs and career choices, choice of boyfriend/girlfriend like from another faith and how children are raised.
-Christianity teaches children should honour their parents and that parents should care for and support their children.
-Islam teaches that no child should cause harm to their parents and parents should care for their children and muslims should obey their parents even in adulthood and repect their parents' wisdom.
Christian Teachings on Forgiveness and Reconcillia
-Forgiveness is to pardon someone for something they have done.
-Reconcilliation is bringing together people who were opposed.
-Christianity teaches this as Jesus died on the cross to bring forgiveness and reconcilliation between humanity and god, Christians should forgive others and god will help them to do this even when it's difficult.
-The bible teaches people they should forgive those they have argued with and reconcilliation is the best way to solve conflict.
-Some Christians believe that with God's love,everything is forgivable and if they don't forgive god won't forgive them.
-Other Christians argue if the conflict was about religious teachings where the bible had a definite teaching then there can be no reconciliation.
Muslim teachings on forgiveness and reconcilliatio
-Islam teaches Conflicts should be resolved by forgiveness and reconcilliation, on the day of judgement Allah will show mercy and forgiveness to those who have done the same to others,Muhammad taught that people should forgive and reconcile with those who have offended them and Allah is the compassionate and merciful showing Allah forgives so people should too.
-On the pilgrimage to Mecca muslims will pray for forgiveness so Allah will forgive their sins.
-Some actions that are not forgivable by Muslims are working against Islam, freely denying Muslim principles and displaying images of Muhammad