Psychology Topic C

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Limbic System

An area of the brain involved in emotion

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Amygdala

a brain structure thought to be invovled in aggression

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Hormone

chemicals produced by the human body that send signals to organs around the body via the bloodstream

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Observational Learning

the process of learrning from watching others

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Modelling

observing, identifying with and copying the behaviour of a role model

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Role Model

a person who is looked up to and copied

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Identification

a feeling of similarity with a role model that leads to the imitation of their behaviour - we believe we can be like them.

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Vicarious Reinforcement

learning through the positive consequences of other peoples actions rather than firsthand - we are more likely to copy if they are rewarded.

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Nature

what we are born with

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Nurture

what we learn from the way we are raised

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Content Analysis

a research method used to measure the number of times something comes up in a book, newspaper article, television programme, etc.

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Tally

a single mark on a chart to show that a behaviour/catergory has been found during a content analysis

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Unrepresentative

limited so that it may not apply to everyone

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Reliability

refers to wheter findings of studies would be found again if the study was repeated

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Consent

permission to take part in a study

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Right to Withdraw

a participant's right to leave a study at any time and their ability to do so

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Deception

being lied to

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Debrief

being told the truth about a study when it is over

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Competence

a psychologist's ability to conduct a study

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Protection of Participants

looking after the rights and welfare of participants to ensure no physical or psychological damage

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Independent Variable

the factor which is changed by the researcher in an experiment to make two or more conditions

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Dependent Variable

the factor which is measured in an experiment

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Natural Experiment

an experiment where the independent variable is naturally occurring and not set up by the researchers

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Empathetic Listening

a way of listening to another person so that there is real understanding. It also involves responding in a way that shows that you have listened.

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Watershed

term used to indicate a turning point. When applied to TV programming it is the 9pm deadline before which programmes (including cable and satellite programmes) that contain certain levels ofviolence and/or sex cannot be broadcast.

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Censorship

preventing information from being circulated in some way

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Moral Censorship

deciding what material is suitable for broadcasting or publishing and what material is not considered moral or suitable

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Authoritarian

a style of government where society's members have little input and have to accept the governments decisions

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Paternalistic

a style of governmet where its decisions are made for the good of everybody else. This rests on the idea of the head of the household knowing what is best for everybody else in the household.

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Generalisable

refers to finding of studies and wheter they can be said to be true of people other than those that were studied

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Social Learning Theory

the idea that learning comes from the observation and imitation of role models

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Sample

a collection of participants gathered to undertake a psychological research study

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