Psychology Learning; p1

this involves the main topics, concepts, assumptions, theories, methodology, application and studies involved in the learning perspective (for Psychology IB higher)

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Main topics:

  • Classical Conditioning (CC).
  • Operant Conditioning (OC).
  • Token Economy.
  • Phobia.
  • Gene Preparedness.
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Concepts:

  • OC - Reinforcers and punishers, only studies behaviour e.g. Thorndikes puzzle box.
  • CC- controlled behaviour e.g. Pavlov`s dogs.
  • Trial and Error- Punishing and rewarding behaviour randomly.
  • Generalisation - General laws and principles.
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Assumptions:

  • Behaviourists - we were born as a blank slate (the environment and upbringing makes us who we are.).
  • We can learn from animal behaviour/ we can learn from environment like animals.
  • Psychologist- only study behaviour not thoughts and feelings.
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Theories;

  • OC - only studies behaviour.
  • CC - controlled.
  • Imprinting - Lorenz`s Goslings (genetics preparedness).
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Methodology:

  • Lab experiments.
  • Observation.
  • Natural experiments.
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Application:

  • Aversion therapy - CC - getting rid of bad habits e.g gayness via ECT.
  • Token Economy - OC- is commonly used in prisons and schools.
  • Phobia treatment - CC- Flooding- Phobias are learnt so can easily be unlearned by exposure to the phobia.
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Studies:

  • Pavlov`s Dogs - CC- Salivate to bells.
  • Thorndikes Cats - OC- escape out of puzzle box and learn.
  • Lorenz`s Geese - imprinting- gene preparedness.
  • Little Albert - CC - creating a phobia.
  • Bandura Dolls.
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