Cultural Differences In attachment.

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Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg 1988

Cultural Differences to the strange situation.

Germany: 57 secure, 35 avoidant, 8 resistant

Great Britain:75 secure,22 avoidant, 3 resistant

Netherlands: 67 secure, 26 avoidant,7 resistant

etc all show consistency that their highest number is always secure. Doesent say how many infants were used in each study.

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Takahashi 1990

Strange Situation on Japanese children.

60 middle class Japanese Infants 1 yr old boys and girls. Were all raised at home. Infants and mothers were all observed using the strange situation.

68% secure, same as original sample.

Non avoidant

32% resistant

Infants much more disturbed when they were left on their own. 90% of cases the step had to be stopped they were too distressed.Differences occoured. Japanese infants experience hardly any seperation because of the way the Japanese live. Generally sleep with parents until they are  2. Lack of avoidance because they are taught that it is rude. Limited Sample, hard to generalize findings.

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Grossmann and Grossmann 1991

German infants are more likely to be classified as avoidant.

German children are encouraged to be independent. Different cultures favour different characteristics.

Appeared as insecurely attached even though that is how they are brought up.

The study doesent say the number of infants used.

Could be due to test situation.

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