- sensation-phsyical process of receiving info from the environment via the sences
- shape constancy-sensory info changes depending on the angle the object is viewed from
- colour constancy-lighting affects the colour of objects
- visual illusions-this is when sensory data is misinturpreted
- depth cues-cues from the environment that allow us to perceive depth
- linear perspective-parallel lines get closer as they reced into the distance
- height in plane-the closer an object is to the horizen the further away it is
- relative size-the smaller an object is on the retina the further away it is
- superimposition-if one object is hiding part of another object the complete object is closer
- texture gradien-fine detail decreases the further away it is
- bottom up prosessing- using sensory data to perceive things
- top down processing-useing prior knoledge to perceive things
perception (core theory) constructivist theory
perception is top down processing, it is down to prior knowledge and past experiance.
also if you are expecting to see someone/thing you are more likely to notice them/it in a crowd
also how you are feeling at that time will affect percepton
-doesnt explain why we fall for the same illusions if pereption is down to past experiences
-doesnt explain why we are perceive the world in similar ways even though we dont all have the same past experiences
perception (core study) Haber and levin
Aim-investigate if perception is top down processing or bottom up processing
Procedure-9 male collage students that had good eyesight where taken to a field that had been split into four sections, the first section was the arival area, the next was filled with 15 real life regular sized objects, third was real life objects that could come in various sizes and the last was carboard geomectric shapes. all sections had 15 objects adding up to a total of 45 obejects. the participants where then asked to record their estimates for each object.
Results- the most accriot estimates where recorded for the standard sized every day objects.
Evaluation-gender bias as all participants where males so can not be generalised to females as well
-cultultral bias all from the same collage
-cannot be generalised to a large amount of the population as only a small sample base was given.
perception (Application) Advertising
perception is used in everyday life when creating an advert.stimulus intensity is the longer an advert is on for the more likely it is to be noticed,Stimulus changes is if an advert contains flashing lights or lots of different noises it is more attention grabbing so will be noticed more,Stimulus repetition is the more times an advert is on the more it is noticed,Context is making sure the product being sold is put in the right environment (swim wear on a beach).Motivation is using things to get attention (food adverts on lunch time)
key terms: Conservation-the ability to understand that changing the form of something doesnt change the amount/volume. Decentring-a child can understand more than one feature of a situation/object (is no longer egocentric). Object perminance-a child can understand that an object still exsits even when not in sight. Zone of proximal development-gap difference between where a child can get on their own and where they can get with help. Animism-Treating inanimate objects real Linguistic humour-to use language in play and understand double meanings. reversability- cannot think backwards provents logical thinking. seriation-ability to put things in rank order.
Cognitive development (core theory) piagets theory
SENSORY MOTOR STAGE (0-2 yrs) Childern learn through their sensors and actions, babys spend most times placing obgjects into schemas in there brain.Acheivments at this stage include:Body schemas(infant recognises that they exsist phsically),Motor Co-ordination(Infant learns to co ordinate different parts of their body),Object perminance(knows that even when not in sight a object still exsists).
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7 YRS) limitations at this stage are:reversability,animism,centration,egocentrism but they learn symbolic thought (create internal representations of objects or concepts)
Concrete operational stage Acheivments at this stage inslude:decentring,stop animism, overcome reversability,conservation,linguistic humore and seriation the limitation is that they lack abstract thought
FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (11 YRS +) acheivments include:abstract thought, systematic thinking evaluation: ignores individual differences, underestimates some children, no account for environment, gender bias
cognitivedevelopment(core study)conservation of nu
Aim-test conservation of children
Procedure-Cross sectinal study, each child was shown two rows of counters and were asked what row had the most counters, one of the rows was then spread out while the child was watching and was then asked again what row had the most counters.
Results- different ages gave different answers childeren aged between 2-7 said that when one row was more spread out it contained more counters,7yrs+ said that even when one row was more spread out they both contained the same amount of counters
Conclusion-children aged under 7 can not reverse the situation but over 7yrs the children know that changing the appereance doesnt mean you are changing the volume/amount.
Evaluation-way the questions are asked could make chidren change their answer as if asked the same question more than once they think that they have the wrong answer.small sample base,cultral bias only in europe,not child friendly
cognitve development (application)education
piagets theory has helped in everyday life. peer suport-allowing childeren in class time for understanding, disscusing and colaborating learning this helps the child de centre (can see others points of view)discovery learning-children learn better when doing so the job of the teachers should not be to pour too much info down the childeren at once but to raise questions and disscusions
vygotskys theory has helped schools develope the spiral ciriculum when diffecult work is presented simple at first then over the following years being revisited. scaffolding-support from teachers and other students to help children advance.
None verbal communication
key terms- body language-communicating through physicall body movements (touching,wave) cultural varriations-difference in behaviours, attitudes or values across different cuntries, societies or communities. Vicarious reinforcment-when a models behaviour is reinforced, the likely hood of immitation by the observer is increased Vicarious punishment-when a models behaviour is punished the likelyhood of immitation is less decreased
Application-modelling,practice,feedback,homework.social skills training is used on offenders they will watch the trainer show good nvc and then will be asked to practice it.
criminal behaviour biological theory
claims that criminal behaviour is biological the criminal genethis explains criminal families. criminals have certain facial features. criminal brains have certain brain dysfunctions that make them how they are. the limbic system controls aggressive and sexuall drive this is overactive in criminals. the pre frontal cortex forms assosication between fear and anti social behaivour this is underactive in criminals.
-the criminal gene cannot be generalised to all crimes as there is too many crimes to be covered by one gene as someone may just steal a coat and another criminal may be a mass merderer.
-it also doesnt take learning into account as childeren may learn criminal behaviour from there parents and sibilins and this is what causes criminal families.
-this can lead to selective breading as, extream situations.
criminal behaiour alternative theory
vicarious reinforcement- observe criminal acts and watch someone getting away with it this leads to the observer being reinforced and will immitate that behaviour.
we are more likely to immitate someone if they are significant,similar or have status. family members are of significance to you so you will imitate them this leads to criminal families.media- actors/actresses on films/tv commit crime and get away with it so copy them (status).
criminal behaviour (core study) Mednick et als
Aim-to find out if criminal behaviour is nature or nurture
Procedure-conducted in denmark mednick accsesed over 4000 adopted males born between 1924-1947 and compared it to the records of their adoptive parents and biological parents.
results- 25% males had criminal records had biological and addoptive parents that were convicted. 20% males had only biological parents that were convicted. 15% males had only addoptive parents that were convicted.14%had no biological or addoptive parents that were convicted.
Conclusion-stong genetic link between criminal behaviour and nature.
evaluation-Gender bias,cannot be redone,relayed on reported crimes
self concept-a persons view of their selves ideal self-the person an individual wants to be self asteem- a measure of how much we value ourselves unconditional positive regard-showing an individual love and respect regardless of what they do self actualisation-person reaching there full potential (ideal self)
most common counselling is deppression,relationships and carrers guidence.rodgers developed a client centred therapy is led by the client not the theropist. the therapist avoids given instructions just shows understanding,empathy and counseller is genuine and client feels they can express them selves.
humanistic theory (the self)
- each of us always has the power to decide our actions
- the present is what we should focus on rather than past experiences
- all motivated to become the best we can (full potential)
if someones self concept is close to our ideal self we will have high self esteem the further away they are the lower self esteem they have.to highier self esteem people need to give the person unconditional positive regard.
a) self actualised unique social person
c)love and belonging
d)managing health and safety
e)looking after basic everyday things
alternative theory the self trait theory
eysencks believed that personality has a genetic basis ans has a biological explination-our personality is shaped by the part of our brain called the retcular activating system(activates higher parts of the brain). our personality is shaped by the activity and arousal of parts of our nervous system network.each personality can be assessed by two main traits. extroversionis a scale that tells us how introverted or extroverted someone is.neuroticism scale tells us how stable or neurotic someone is.extrovert-someone that is outgoing.introvert-someone that is reservered.stable-someone that is calm.neurotic-someone that always is worring.