Psychology - Paper 1

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  • Created on: 15-05-16 17:44

MSM of Memory

Sensory register

Short-term memory

Long-term memory


Baddeley - mixing up words

KF & Amnesia - STM not a unitary store.

Artifical material

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Types of long-term memory

Episodic memory

Semantic memory

Procedural memory


Clinical studies of Amnesia

Brain scan studies

Problems with clinical evidence

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Working Memory Model

Baddeley and Hitch.

Central Executive

Phonological Loop: Phonological store & Articulatory process

Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad: Visual cache & Inner scribe

Episodic Buffer


Clinical evidence - KF.

Dual-task performance

Lack of clarity over CE

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Explanations for forgetting: INTERFERENCE

Proactive interference: old > new

Retroactive interference: new > old

McGeoch and McDonald: Effects of similarity


Evidence from lab studies

Artifical materials

Real-life studies: Baddeley and Hitch.

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Explanations for forgetting: RETRIEVAL FAILURE

ESP - Tulving. 

Some cues have no meaningful link:
Context-dependent forgetting: Godden and Baddeley (Deep-Sea Divers): recall better when external contexts matched
State-dependent forgetting: Carter and Cassady (Anti-Histamine): recall better when internal states matched


Supporting evidence - Eysenck

Questioning context efefcts - Baddeley

Problems with ESP

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EWT: Misleading Information

Response-bias explanation
Substitution explanation

Leading questions - Loftus and Palmer (car speed)

Post-event discussion - Gabbert et al
Memory conformity and NSI involved


Demand characteristics

Artifical tasks

Individual differences

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EWT: Anxiety

Emotional and physical arousal affects recall

Anxiety has a negative effect on recall - Johnson and Scott (weapon focus)
Tunnel theory of memory

Anxiety has a positive effect on recall - Yuille and Cutshall (real-life shooting)


Field studies sometimes lack control

Ethical issues

Demand characteristics

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EWT: Cognitive interview

Fisher and Geisalman

Report everything
Reinstate the context
Reverse the order
Change perspective

ECI - Fisher et al


CI is time consuming

Some elements may be more valuable than others

Support for the effectiveness of ECI

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Conformity: Asch's Research


A child of its time - Perrin and Spencer

Artificial situation and task

Limited application of findings

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Conformity to social roles: Zimbardo's Research



Ethical issues

Dispositional influences

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Obedience: Milgram's Research

150V - 450V
Teacher turned to experimenter for guidance, he gave a standard instruction: 'absence of response should be treated as a wrong answer'.

If teacher felt unsure about continuing, experimenter gave 4 standard prods:
1) please continue
2) the experiment requires that you go on
3) it is absolutely essential that you continue
4) you have no other choice, you must go on.


Good external validity - Hofling et al

Ethical issues - Baumrind

Low internal validity - Orne and Holland

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Obedience: social-psychological factors

Agentic state

Autonomous state

Binding factors

Legitimacy of authority


Research support - Blass and Schmitt

A limited explanation

Real-life crimes of obedience - Kelman and Hamilton

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Obedience: dispositional explanations

Adorno et al



Research support

Limited explanation

Political bias

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Resistance to social influence

Social support:
Asch research

Milgram research

LOC: Rotter

Evaluation for social support:

Research support - Allen and Levine
Research support - Gamson et al

Evaluation for LOC:

Research support - Holland
Contradictory research - Twenge et al

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Minority influence

Consistency - Synchronic & Diachronic
Flexibility - Nemeth
Snowball effect

Moscovici et al 


Research support for consistency - Wood et al

Limited real world applications

Artificial tasks

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Social influence & Social change

Drawing attention
Deeper processing
Augmentation principle
Snowball effect
Social cryptomnesia

Lessons from conformity research - Asch & environmental and health campaigns
Lessons from obedience research - Zimbardo & Milgram


Research support - Nolan et al

Only indirectly effective - Nemeth

Methodological issues 

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Schaffers stages

Evaluation of Schaffer's study:

Good external validity
Limited sample characteristics
Longitudinal design


Evaluation of stages:

Asocial stage

Conflicting evidence

Measuring multiple attachments

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Animal studies


Generalisability to humans

Some observations questioned - Guiton et al


Theoretical value

Practical value - Howe

Ethical issues

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Learning theory

Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning


Animal studies

Human research

Ignores other factors

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Bowlby's monotropic theory

Law of continuity
Law of accumulated separation

Social releasers and critical period

Internal working model


Support for IWM - Bailey et al

Evidence for monotropy is mixed 

Support for social releasers - Brazleton et al

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Ainsworth's strange situation

Proximity seeking
Expolration and secure-base behaviour
Stranger anxiety
Separation anxiety
Response to reuinion

Secure attachment
Insecure-avoidant attachment
Insecure-resistant attachment


Good reliability

Support for validity

Test may be culture bound

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Cultural variations

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

Jin et al


Samples unrepresentative of culture

Strange Situation lacks validity - Kagan et al

Large samples

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Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation


Critical period

Intellectual development
Emotional development

Bowlby's 44 thieves study


counter-evidence - Lewis

Animal studies - Levy et al

Evidence may be poor

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Romanian orphans studies

Disinhibited attachment
Damage to intellectual development

Rutter et al: Romanian orphans

Zeanah et al: Bucharest Early Intervention Project


Romanian orphanages not typical

Real-life application

Fewer extraneous variables 

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Influence of early attachment on later relationshi

First attachment is template for future relationships

Good experience = good relationship
Bad experience = bad relationship

Better friendships

Internal working model affects parenting

Hazan and Shaver: Romantic relationships


Evidence is mixed - Zimmerman et al

Low validity 

Association does not mean causality 

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Introduction to attachment

Interactional synchronicy - Meltzof and Moore 


Hard to know what is happening
Controlled observations
Purpose of synchronicy and reciprocity - Feldman

The role of the father - Grossman


Children without fathers aren't different
Fathers not primary attachments
Inconsistent findings

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Conformity - types and explanations

Types of conformity:




Explanations for conformity:
Normative social influence (NSI)
Informational social infleunce (ISI)


Research support for ISI - Lucas et al

Individual differences in NSI - naffilliators

ISI and NSI work together

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