Psychology - Paper 1

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  • Created on: 15-05-16 17:44

MSM of Memory

Sensory register

Short-term memory

Long-term memory

Evaluation:

Baddeley - mixing up words

KF & Amnesia - STM not a unitary store.

Artifical material

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Types of long-term memory

Episodic memory

Semantic memory

Procedural memory

Evaluation:

Clinical studies of Amnesia

Brain scan studies

Problems with clinical evidence

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Working Memory Model

Baddeley and Hitch.

Central Executive

Phonological Loop: Phonological store & Articulatory process

Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad: Visual cache & Inner scribe

Episodic Buffer

Evaluation:

Clinical evidence - KF.

Dual-task performance

Lack of clarity over CE

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Explanations for forgetting: INTERFERENCE

Proactive interference: old > new

Retroactive interference: new > old

McGeoch and McDonald: Effects of similarity

Evaluation:

Evidence from lab studies

Artifical materials

Real-life studies: Baddeley and Hitch.

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Explanations for forgetting: RETRIEVAL FAILURE

ESP - Tulving. 

Some cues have no meaningful link:
Context-dependent forgetting: Godden and Baddeley (Deep-Sea Divers): recall better when external contexts matched
State-dependent forgetting: Carter and Cassady (Anti-Histamine): recall better when internal states matched

Evaluation:

Supporting evidence - Eysenck

Questioning context efefcts - Baddeley

Problems with ESP

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EWT: Misleading Information

Response-bias explanation
Substitution explanation

Leading questions - Loftus and Palmer (car speed)

Post-event discussion - Gabbert et al
Memory conformity and NSI involved

Evaluation:

Demand characteristics

Artifical tasks

Individual differences

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EWT: Anxiety

Emotional and physical arousal affects recall

Anxiety has a negative effect on recall - Johnson and Scott (weapon focus)
Tunnel theory of memory

Anxiety has a positive effect on recall - Yuille and Cutshall (real-life shooting)

Evaluation:

Field studies sometimes lack control

Ethical issues

Demand characteristics

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EWT: Cognitive interview

Fisher and Geisalman

Report everything
Reinstate the context
Reverse the order
Change perspective

ECI - Fisher et al

Evaluation:

CI is time consuming

Some elements may be more valuable than others

Support for the effectiveness of ECI

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Conformity: Asch's Research

Evaluation:

A child of its time - Perrin and Spencer

Artificial situation and task

Limited application of findings

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Conformity to social roles: Zimbardo's Research

Evaluation:

Control

Ethical issues

Dispositional influences

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Obedience: Milgram's Research

150V - 450V
Teacher turned to experimenter for guidance, he gave a standard instruction: 'absence of response should be treated as a wrong answer'.

If teacher felt unsure about continuing, experimenter gave 4 standard prods:
1) please continue
2) the experiment requires that you go on
3) it is absolutely essential that you continue
4) you have no other choice, you must go on.

Evaluation:

Good external validity - Hofling et al

Ethical issues - Baumrind

Low internal validity - Orne and Holland

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Obedience: social-psychological factors

Agentic state

Autonomous state

Binding factors

Legitimacy of authority

Evaluation:

Research support - Blass and Schmitt

A limited explanation

Real-life crimes of obedience - Kelman and Hamilton

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Obedience: dispositional explanations

Adorno et al

F-scale

Evaluation:

Research support

Limited explanation

Political bias

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Resistance to social influence

Social support:
Asch research

Milgram research

LOC: Rotter

Evaluation for social support:

Research support - Allen and Levine
Research support - Gamson et al

Evaluation for LOC:

Research support - Holland
Contradictory research - Twenge et al

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Minority influence

Consistency - Synchronic & Diachronic
Commitment
Flexibility - Nemeth
Snowball effect

Moscovici et al 

Evaluation:

Research support for consistency - Wood et al

Limited real world applications

Artificial tasks

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Social influence & Social change

Drawing attention
Consistency
Deeper processing
Augmentation principle
Snowball effect
Social cryptomnesia

Lessons from conformity research - Asch & environmental and health campaigns
Lessons from obedience research - Zimbardo & Milgram

Evaluation:

Research support - Nolan et al

Only indirectly effective - Nemeth

Methodological issues 

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Schaffers stages

Evaluation of Schaffer's study:

Good external validity
Limited sample characteristics
Longitudinal design

ASOCIAL STAGE
INDISCRIMINATE ATTACHMENT
SPECIFIC ATTACHMENTS
MULTIPLE ATTACHMENTS

Evaluation of stages:

Asocial stage

Conflicting evidence

Measuring multiple attachments

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Animal studies

Lorenz:

Generalisability to humans

Some observations questioned - Guiton et al

Harlow:

Theoretical value

Practical value - Howe

Ethical issues

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Learning theory

Classical conditioning

Operant conditioning

Evaluation:

Animal studies

Human research

Ignores other factors

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Bowlby's monotropic theory

Law of continuity
Law of accumulated separation

Social releasers and critical period

Internal working model

Evaluation:

Support for IWM - Bailey et al

Evidence for monotropy is mixed 

Support for social releasers - Brazleton et al

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Ainsworth's strange situation

Proximity seeking
Expolration and secure-base behaviour
Stranger anxiety
Separation anxiety
Response to reuinion

Secure attachment
Insecure-avoidant attachment
Insecure-resistant attachment

Evaluation:

Good reliability

Support for validity

Test may be culture bound

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Cultural variations

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

Jin et al

Evaluation:

Samples unrepresentative of culture

Strange Situation lacks validity - Kagan et al

Large samples

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Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation

Separation
Deprivation

Critical period

Intellectual development
Emotional development

Bowlby's 44 thieves study

Evaluation:

counter-evidence - Lewis

Animal studies - Levy et al

Evidence may be poor

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Romanian orphans studies

Disinhibited attachment
Damage to intellectual development

Rutter et al: Romanian orphans

Zeanah et al: Bucharest Early Intervention Project

Evaluation:

Romanian orphanages not typical

Real-life application

Fewer extraneous variables 

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Influence of early attachment on later relationshi

First attachment is template for future relationships

Good experience = good relationship
Bad experience = bad relationship

Better friendships

Internal working model affects parenting

Hazan and Shaver: Romantic relationships

Evaluation: 

Evidence is mixed - Zimmerman et al

Low validity 

Association does not mean causality 

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Introduction to attachment

Reciprocity
Interactional synchronicy - Meltzof and Moore 

Evaluation:

Hard to know what is happening
Controlled observations
Purpose of synchronicy and reciprocity - Feldman

The role of the father - Grossman

Evaluation:

Children without fathers aren't different
Fathers not primary attachments
Inconsistent findings

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Conformity - types and explanations

Types of conformity:

Internalisation

Identification

Compliance

Explanations for conformity:
Normative social influence (NSI)
Informational social infleunce (ISI)

Evaluation:

Research support for ISI - Lucas et al

Individual differences in NSI - naffilliators

ISI and NSI work together

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