Changing information so that it can be stored.

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Holding information in the memory system.

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Recovering information from storage.

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The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores.

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Sensory store

Hold information received from the senses for a very short period of time.

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Short-term store

Holds approxiamately seven chunks of information for a limited amount of time.

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Long-term store

Holds a vast amount of information for a very long period of time.

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Recency effect

Information that is received later is recalled better than earlier information - because of it being recent (recency)

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Primacy effect

The first information received later is recalled better than subsequent information.

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Reconstructive memory

Altering our recollection of things so that they make more sense to us.

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Structural processing

Thinking about the physical appearance of the words to be learnt.

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Phonetic processing

Thinking about the sound of the words to be learnt.

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Semantic processing

Thinking about the meaning of the words to be learnt.

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Levels of processing

The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learn it.

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THings that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information that we have learnt.

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Retroactive interference

When information we have recently learnt hinders our ability to recall information that we have previously learnt.

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Proactive interference

When information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall new information.

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The general setting or environment in which activities happen.

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Anterograde amnesia

Being unable to learn new information after suffering brain damage.

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Retrograde amnesia

Loss of memory for events that happened before the brain damage occurred.

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A brain structure that is crucial for memory.

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In the context of eye witness testimony, the extent to which it can be regarded as accurate.

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Cognitive interview

A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event.

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Leading questions

A question that hints that a particular type of answer is required.

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An oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others. For example - scientists wear white coats,goggles and work in labs.

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Passing information from one person to another.

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Verbal communication

Conveying messages using words or vocal sounds.

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Para linguistics

Vocal features that accompany speech.

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Tone of voice

The way words are spoken to convey emotion.

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Giving prominence to some words more than others.

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Inflection in the voice when speaking.

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Non-verbal communication

Conveying messages that do not require the use of words or vocal sounds.

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Eye contact

When 2 people in conversation are looking at each other's eyes at the same tiime.

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Pupil dilation

When pupils expand to look large.

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Hemispheres of the brain

The brain is divided into 2 halves, the left and right hemispheres.

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Practical implications

Suggestions about behaviour in the real world beyond the research study, based upon what psychologists have discovered.

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Body language

A general term to describe aspects of non-verbal communication.

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The positioning of the body, often regarded as a non-verbal communication signal.

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Postural echo

Mirroring another person's body position.

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An actor or stooge who appears to be a genuine participant in the experiment but who is actually working for the experimenter.

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Closed posture

Positioning the arms so that they are actually folded across the body or crossing the legs.

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Open posture

Positioning the arms so they are not folded across the body and not crossing the legs.

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A form of non-verbal communication in which information is conveyed by either deliberate or unconscious movement of parts of the body.

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A form of non-verbal communication in which information is conveyed by physical contact between people.

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Personal space

The distance we keep between ourselves and other people in our everyday lives.

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Sex differences

Differences due to being either male or female; these could affect personal space between individuals.

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Individual differences

Factors that make one person not the same as another person, such as our personality or age.

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Cultural norms

The range of behaviours that members of a particular social group or society can be expected.

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A person rank or position in society.

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The thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make an individual unique.

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The genetic component of personality.

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Longitundinal study

A study carried out to show how behaviour changes over time.

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Monozygotic twins

Twins developed from one fertilised egg.

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Dizygotic twins

Twins developed from two separately fertilised eggs.

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Type theory

Personality types are thought to be inherited. They can be described using related traits.

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A personalty type that describes people that look to the outside world for entertainment.

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A personality type that describes people who are happy with their own company.

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A personality type that describes people who are highly emotional and show a quick, intense reaction to fear.

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Personality scales

Ways of measuring personality using yes or no questions.

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A third dimension identified by Eysenck. People who score high on this dimension are hostile, aggressive, insensitive and cruel.

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Antisocial personality disorder

APD - a condition in which the individual does not use socially acceptable behaviour or consider the rights of others.

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Lists different mental disorders and the criteria for diagnosing them.

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Part of the brain that is involved in emotion.

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Grey matter (cerebral cortex)

The outer layer of the brain.

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Prefrontal cortex

The very front of the brain. It is involved in social and moral behaviour and controls aggression.

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Socioeconomic factors

Social and financial issues that can affect an individual.

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Means of communication - television, radio, the internet and newspapers.

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Role model

Someone who a child looks up to and is likely to copy.

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A rigid set of attitudes or beliefs towards particular groups of people. These attitudes are usually negative but not always.

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The way an individual behaves towards another person or group as a result of their prejudiced view. This behaviour is usually negative but sometimes positive.

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Authoritarian personality

A personality type that is prone to being prejudiced.

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The questionnaire used by Adorno to measure personality characteristics.

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Robber's Cave

The name given to Sherif's experiement on prejudice.

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A group of people you believe you have something in common with. For example - your friend group.

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A group of people you believe you have nothing in common with. For example - people you have never met before.

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Jigsaw method

The name given to the technique used by Aronson to reduce prejudice within a group of mixed race students.

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Expert groups

Another name for the jigsaw method. It is called expert groups because each member of the group becomes an expert on a particular topic and they then pass this message on to the rest of their group.

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Seeing, speaking or writing to someone.

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 Being able to put yourself in someone else's position psychologically and understand how that person is feeling.

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A testable statement about the relationship between the two variables. In an experiment these variables are called the independent and the dependent variable.

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A factor or thing that can change - it varies.

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Independent variable (IV)

The variable that the researcher alters or manipulates to look for an affect or another variable. This varies produces the two conditions of the study. (The thing I change.)

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Dependent variable (DV)

The variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has affected it.

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The method of research in which all variables other than the IV and DV are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify a cause - and - effect relationship between the IV and DV.

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An experiment is usually organised, there are two trials, after which the performances of the participants are compared. These are the conditions of the experiment.

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A person who is selected to take part in the study.

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Order effect

This occurs when the participant's performance in the second condition of an experiment is affected because they have already done the first condtion. They may do better because of practice or worse because of tiredness. This may happen in a repeated measures design.

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Participants variables

The differences between the people who take part in the study. These may affect the results of an experiment that uses independent groups design.

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Standardised procedures

A set order of carrying out a study that is applied to all participants when necessary.

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Random allocation

A procedure for putting participants in to conditions by chance.

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A procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiment.

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The written (or verbal) information given to participants during the experiment.

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Extraneous variable (EV)

A variable that is not the IV but may affect the DV if its not controlled.

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Making sure procedures are the same when necessary. Not controlling procedures leads to the possibility of EV occurring and confounding the results.

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Using chance to produce an order for a procedure.

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Ecological validity

The results of the investigation can be said to apply to real life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world.

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Not affected by people being bias.

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The small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied on.

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Target population

The large group of people the researcher wishes to study.

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The sample of participants is made up of people who have the same characteristics and abilities as the target population.

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The results from the sample can be said to apply to the target population.

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Random sample

Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.

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Opportunity sample

People who are members of the target population and are available and willing to take part.

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Systematic sample

Every 'nth' member of the target population is selected for the sample.

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Stratified sample

To obtain this type of sample, the different subgroups in the target population are identified; then people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to thier numbers in the target population.

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Raw data

The scores collected in a study that have not been analysed or summarised.

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A statistic calculated by adding all the scores in a set of values and dividing the total by the number of values in the set.

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The middle value/number in a set of values when the values have been arranged in ascending order.

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The difference between the lowest and highest value in the set of values.

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Anomalous result

An extremely high or low result that does not match the other results in a set of values.

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A proportion expressed as a fraction of 100.

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Ethical issues

Points of concern about what is morally right.

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