Reciprocity - the infant and elder coordinate in line with one another as it helps to establish trust.
International Synchrony - showed that a baby would copy their parents from as little as 3 day's old showing how it's an innate quality and not something learnt.
Schaffer and Emmerson (1964) - developed a stage theory of attachment. Arguing that infants go through a number of stages:
Birth-2 months : Indiscriminate attachment : similar response to all objects : Show a greater preference for people towards 2 months.
2-4 months : Beginnings of attachment : Infant seeks attention from a number of individuals, content when receiving attention from them. No stanger anxiety.
4-7 months : Discriminate attachment : Infant develops a strong attachment to one individual, show's seperation anxiety & stanger anxiety.
7-9 months : Multiple attachment stage : Baby forms strong emotinal ties & non-caregivers such as siblings/other children = secondary attachments.
Animal Studies of Attachment
Harlow and Harlow - conducted a study on infant monkeys.
-The monkeys were placed in a cage with two wire mesh cylinders.
- One cylinder was bare and provided the monkey with milk from a teat.
- The other cylinder was covered in towelling providing the monkey with comfort.
-Monkeys spent most of their time on the towelling covered cylinder : they would also jump on the towelling covered cylinder when frightened = attachment behaviour.
-However the towelling-covered mother did not provide love to enable healthy psychological development. As a result of this:
- There were serious effects on the monkeys : indifferent or abusive to other monkeys.
-The infants needed a responsive carer.
Animal Studies of Attachment
-Lorenz took half a group of gosling eggs from their mother and hatched them in his incubator.
-The first moving living they saw when they hatched was him.
-They followed him everywhere.
-He tested this imprinting by putting them with other goslings who had hatched with their mother.
-They showed no interest in their mother.
-A critical period in which impriniting may occur - two days : long lasting effects.
-Much of our behaviour is the result of learning.
-Learning occurs through classical and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning : when we associate a reflex response with an alternative stimulus.
Operant conditioning : explains behaviour as being determined by consequences.
- Pleasent consequence ( reward = positive reinforcement).
- Unpleasent consequence ( removal of hunger = negative reinforcement).
-Unpleasent consequences decrease behaviour.
-Babies are born with a set of reflex responses.
-2 of the reflexes are : hunger & satisfaction.
-When the baby is hungry the mother provides the food and the baby feels satisfaction.
-The feeling of satisfaction becomes associated with the mother.
-After a while the food is not necessary, and the association of pleasure is with the mother herself.
-Operant conditioning is through reinforcing behaviour, either through
-An unpleasent consequence
-Through punishment then behaviour will be learned.
Dollard and Miller
-We have drive states: they motivate behaviour to reduce the drive. Eg A infant cries, the consequence is that it will be fed and the hunger goes away.
-Stimuli associated with drive reduction are known as secondary reinforcers.
-Attachment occurs because the attachment figure is associated with the avoidance of discomfort & reward.