AO1 1 CBT
- Challenge a schizphrenics disorted beliefs, such as believing their thoughts are being controlled by somebody or something else.
- Help the patient identify and correct their disorted or maladaptive beliefs
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AO1 2 CBT
- Therapist traces the origins of the patients symptoms to see how they might have developed.
- The therapist evaluates the content of any delusions or voices and demosnstrates they are not real.
- Patient and therapist dvelop their own alternatives to previous maladaptive beliefs.
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AO2 1 Gould et al
- Meta analysis of 7 studies.
- Cbt decreased the +ve symptoms in ALL studies.
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AO2 2 Combining techniques
- Kulpers et al - significant reduction in +ve symptoms following having CBT combined with AP medication.
- Lower rate of patient drop out
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AO2 3 Appropriateness of CBT
- helps create less distressing explanations for their psychotic beliefs rather than eliminate distressing beliefs all together.
- Patients may want to keep some behaviours as they act as a safety net - especially some -ve symptoms, such as affective flattering.
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AO1 4 Suitability
- Hampshire et al - not all patients engage in the therapy.
- Older patients are less suitable
- Maladaptive thinking will not change if they do not engage.
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AO1 3 Psychoanalysis
- individuals are often unaware of the influence of unconscious conflicts on their psychological state.
- assumes all symptoms are meaningful and reflect unconscious conflicts that must be brought into the conscious mind to be resolved.
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AO1 4 Psychoanalysis
- therapist replaces harsh and punishing conscience with one that is less destructive and more supportive.
- As the patient gets healthier they take a more active role in their own recovering.
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AO2 5 Psychodynamic effectiveness
- Gottdeiner et al - meta analysis
- PD therapy was effective for SZ
- However - small number of studies meant it was difficult to asses the impact of variables e.g. therapist training.
- Half the studies did not randomly allocate to conditions - treatment bias.
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AO2 6 Combining treatments
- May - psychodynamic therapy + medication had better outcomes than just therapy alone.
- AP medication alone was better than therapy alone.
- Karon and VandenBos - patients receiving only therapy were improving more than those receiving just medication.
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AO2 7 Expense
- Psychodyamic therapy takes a long time.
- Expense cannot be justified as research has found that it is no more effective than medication.
- However, extra expense is worth it as the overall cost of treatment decreases with time as patients are less likely to seek inpatient treatment and are more likely to gain employment.
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