How does Population Grow?
Exponential growth = where growth rate constantly increases.
Zero Growth = population in balance..birth rate = death rate
Natural decrease = Death rate exceeds the birth rate
Natural increase =Birth rate exceeds death rate
Birth rate = number of babies born per 1,000 people
Death rate = number of deaths per 1,000 people
Factors influencing Birth and Death rate
- Later marriages
- Aspirations of women
- Traditions and beliefs
- Child labour
- Natural disasters / drought
- improved sanitation/medical care
Demographic Transition model
Explains birth and death rate patterns across the world and includes population growth
- Stage 1 : High Birth Rate (no contraception) & high death rate (war, disease, lack of medicine)
- Population = fairly stable
- Example : Rainforest Tribes in the Amazon
- Stage 2: Death rate decreases, birth rate high. (improvements in medicine, children needed to work on land)
- Population: grows
- Example: Afghanistan
- Stage 3: birth rate drops rapidly, death rate decreases (contraception, children expensive)
- Population: slow growth
- Example: India, Kenya
- Stage 4 : Low birth and death rate(children expensive in times of unemployment, aspirations of women)
- Population: levels out
- Example: France, USA, UK
Demographic Transition model 2
- Stage 5: birth rate lower than death rate (career oppurtunities)
- death rate increases = ageing population
- Population: decreases
- Example: Italy, German, Sweden
Factors affecting population growth:
- Need of children for agricultural labour
- Rural-to-urban migration = less children needed
- Cost of children, to pay for education = less children
- Status of women = aspirations, chances to work.
A bar-graph used to show the age and gender structure of a country, city or other area.
Lower part = base Upper part = apex
- Stage 1: wide base - high birth rate
- narrow apex & short height = low life expectancy - high death rate
- Stage 2: sides less concave - death rate falls
- Slightly bigger apex = more elderly, higher life expectancy
Population Pyramids 2
- Stage 3: narrower base = decrease in birth rate
- straighter sides = more people living to old age (health improvements)
- Birth rate decreases = smaller base
- Stage 4: low birth rate = narrow base
- high life expectancy = wide apex
- larger mid-section = larger working population care for elderly & younger
- Stage 5: reduced birth rate = small base
- middle-aged (mid-section) more than children (base)
- More elderly - wider apex
Sustainable population = whose growth and development is at a rate that doesn't threaten the success of future generations
Countries at Stage 4 in DMT.....are most sustainable
Countries at Stage 5 in DMT.....are least sustainable....because numbers are decreasing!
Sustainable Population - China's One Child Policy
- 1970's Government realised country was heading for a famine
- 'Baby Boom' had followed from last famine - population increasing!
1979, introduced the 'One Child Policy'
- Each couple:
- must not marry till late 20's
- must have one successful pregnancy
- receive 10% salary increase with one child
- offered free pensions, housing and education.
- Having second child meant:
- 10% cut in salary
- fine, which would often bankrupt people
- family pay for all education and healthcare
- second child born abroad, not classed as Chinese citizen
One Child Policy 2
'Granny Police' kept regular checks on girls of child bearing age
- would accompany them to contraception appointments
- Minority groups could become unsustainable under the policy, so they were exempt.
- Rural areas - if first child girl..could have 2nd child in hope of boy to work the land.
- women forced to have abortions at 9 months
- women under pressure
- officials had control over people's personal lives
- Chinese girls placed in orphanages = overcrowding, death
- Why Good?:
- No overpopulation/ no famine
- couples that are only children can have more than 1,to help care for when they are elderly
- Growing economy = can pay the fine
Kerala India- alternative birth control
First developing country to intoduce family planning in 1952.
- Is 3.4% of India's population, with 32 million people
- At stage 4 of the Demographic Transistion Model
- Has a low GDP.
Achieved population control:
- improving education standards, and equality between boys and girls
- educating people on the benefits of small families
- reducing infant mortality rate
- improve child healthcare through vaccination programmes
- providing free contraception and advice
- encouraging higher marriage age
- follow a land reform programme
- Death rate is decreasing = people living longer due to medical improvements
- Elderly people contribute to the economy, by spending money on retirement holidays.
- more pensions are needed, means a bigger strain on the workforce (state pension starts at 65, people live till 80!)
- more medical care needed, taking beds in hospitals and NHS money
- more care facilities needed, have to close schools and open care homes
- work population is shrinking = higher tax
- Increase taxes and encourage private pensions
- Increase state pension age to 70
- promote private healthcare, and close children wards in hospitals
- build more care homes by closing schools
- encourage immigration, to build up the workforce
Responded to ageing population by encouraging birth rate (pro-natal policy)
- produces a more favourable age-population dependancy ratio.
Incentives to have children:
- 3 years paid parental leave for both mother's and father's
- Full time schooling, from 3, fully paid for by the government.
- Day care provided for children younger than 3
- more children she has, earlier she can retire on a full pension.
The movement of people from one home to another,may be within a country (national migration) or between countries (international migration)
Pull factors: Push factors:
- new work oppurtunity Disease and pandemics
- An economic benefit War
- better lifestyle = house, job Unemployment
- Good medical care Famine/Drought
- Family living there Political persecution
- Better education Natural disasters
- Better climate
Impacts of International migration
- Brings labour and skills
- Cultural mixing
- Increases countries wealth, contribute to the economy
- Adds interest and variety (curries, music)
- Takes jobs from UK workers
- Causes overcrowding
- puts pressure on health services and school's
- causes religious and cultural problems
- migrants work informally, pay no tax as earn cash, which is sent back to their host country...present country doesn't benefit
- higher demand for housing
Slovak girl working in Sussex
Jana Susinkova came to UK in 2002 (she was 18)
- Worked as a domestic cleaner, charging at least £1 less per hour than the local cleaners
- worked 6 days a week
- boyfriend a mechanic = provided accomodation for them
In 2007, Janan returned back to Slovakia
- had saved enough money to buy materials and create a 4 bedroomed house
- Speaks fluent english
- found a well-paid job
Migration within the EU
Two categories: those moving between countries/coming in from beyond borders.
Wealthier countries recieve immigrants looking for a better lifestyle.
Largest immigrant population in UK = polish
- earn an average of 5 times more in the UK than in Poland
- Use UK health services = gov has to pay for it
Overall the UK has benefitted from the influx of migrants from Poland
Europe needs immigrants because of falling birth rate, resulting in lack of workers
Highly skilled workers come to the EU to take temporary jobs in areas of shortage (teaching, nursing, computer jobs)
Senegal to Italy:
- Mainly males from 16-40 leave Senegal.
- Return and bring enough money to build a house
- Children suffer badly without father's
- Dry climate has limited farming.
- Funds sent back to Beud Forage have helped set up water and electricity supplies
- Houses are left empty, lots of unemployment.
Refugee movements to the EU
Asylum seekers = someone who lives in danger in their own country and wishes to move to another country where they will be safe
- illegal immigrants will take houses/health care
- cause cultural problems
- Cause controversies with other countries
- brings educated people, who contribute to the economy
- give's a good reputation