Roles and Functions
- Representation - of membership and society
- Recruitment - provide people to be MP's and front benchers
- Participation - by joining a party, people are more involved in politics
- Governing - provide country with leadership
- Policy formulation - party ideas (manifesto) put into operation
- Electoral - put forward and support candidates at election times
Ethnic minorities - 12.9%
Con - 5.1%
Lab - 9.4%
Women - 51%
Con - 20%
Lab - 42%
Significant improvement in representation since 2010 but still not good enough.
career politicians - lack of experience in the real world as they go straight into politics.
could have poor amount of training for running major government departments.
e.g George Osbourne never run company or held serious position before he became Chancellor of the exchequer
ever decreasing membership of political parties and increased membership of pressure groups and protest movements.
Con - 1950 = 3million - 150000 = 2010
Lab - 1950 = 1 million - 190000 = 2010
sleaze and MP's expenses created aura of mistrust about the political party
feeling that being a member of a party will not achieve anything
give stability and clarity in government to provide a sirection for the country to go.
decline in party unity since 1920's with increasing amount of backbench rebellions under the coalition government
smaller majorities mean government cant pass all of the laws that they want e.g Cameron 2015 with majority of 12
gives electorate realistic choice of policies which are achieveable and realistic
in recent years, parties are becoming more centralised with a lack of ideology so there is no significant difference between the twom major parties
policy follows public opinion instead of trying to change it with ideological arguments