a geographical area characterised by certain types plants and animals that are adapted o the environment.
rainforest biome- hot and wet all year round. 2000mm of rainfall. max temp of 34. covers 6% of earth
savannah biome- hot, dry, wet is seasonal. plants conserve water so less transpiration less number of leaves otherwise die from drought
oceanic and atmospherical phenomenom in Pacific ocean. happens every 3-4 years.
Normal year- Western Pacific has warm waters, low pressure heavy rainfall. SE Asia and NE Australia.
Eastern Pacific has cold waters, high pressure, arid conditions in SW America.
El nino year- trade winds get weaker so change direction (W-E)-
Eastern Pacific warm, wet low pressure renching rain S America.
West Pacific cold, dry high pressure droughts in SE Asia and Southern Africa
Causes of climate change
- burning fossil fuels
- Solar Activity- amount of energy emitte varies
- Milankovitch cycle- wobbles on axis on a 40 000 cycle. axis moves on a 20 000 year cycle
- Volcanic- causes world temp to lower as (only large eruptions) send ust particles in lower atmosphere which absorb more of incoming radiation from the sun.
- plate tectonics- as redistributed land masses pushed upwards to form fold mountains makes climate cooler
- oceanic movement- El Nino
Evidence of Climate Change
Glacial Retreat- Gangotri Galcier, india : has retreated from 1780-2001. retreated by 2.5km. retreated least in 1935-1956 (colder year). 1964-1971 retreated most (0.7km).
- weather records- collected 1861, shows climate change over short period of time
- polar ice melts- melting of Greenland ice sheet has increase by 16% since 1979 so increase temp.
long term climate change
Dendrochronology- Can show data from 10,000 years ago. Thicker the rings, the warmer and more rainfall there was (Better growing conditions).
pollon analysis- comapre conditions that plants live in now with back then.
ice cores- Taken from Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Measure CO2 given off when melted. Air bubbles in the core show CO2 in the ice. Glacial periods have low CO2 ppm. Carbon levels are higher now than ever
Pollen Analysis: Pollen from plants preserved in sediments. Scientists core peat bogs where the pollen is preserved in water-logged sediments. Match up the pollen grains to determine time and condition
Sea level rise: Sea levels are affected by water stored as ice.Raised beaches are formed when sea levels were higher. These can be dated
- high pressure: brings warm dry conditions
- high temp: 39 recorded Brogdale , Kent
- Low rainfall: below average
- 700 000 killed- heat stroke, dehydration
- in Portugal 215 000ha of forest was destroyed
- livestock died and crops failed- higher food prices- cost european farmers 13.1bn euros
- railway tracks buckled. low river levels so boats couldn't sail
- temp hosepipe ban in parts UK
- speed restriction on trains when temp over 30
- French gov improve protection- alarm systems
climate change on society
sea ice thin and broken, sever and frequent storms, new species of birds (robin) arriving, salmon caught for the first time.
large scale slumping along the coastline. The melting has caused inland lake to drain into ocean killing freshwater fish. influx of flies and mosquitoes.
year long project on the problems of Artic climate change. workshop and meeting to gain knowledge of climate change. adapt as conditions change