An individual's predisposition to behave in a certain way.
Personality is what tends to make you behave in a certain way.
- Holds beliefs, values and attitudes
- Fairly permanent, unlikely to change
- Affects the next layer
- Typical response to a situation
- Good indicator of inner core (same situation but different responses from different people)
Role Related behaviours
- Shows our actual responses to situations
- Most challenging aspect
- Behaviour varies depending on how we feel and the situation we are in
Innate enduring personality characteristic that allows behaviour to be predicted.
- Personality does not change. Environment and situation does not affect
- Cant help the way they act
- Stable and unchanging over time
- Tendency to think and behvave in certain ways is consistent in many different situations
- Each person has a unique combination of these dispositions
- Cannot explain why we may change our behaviour in different scenarios.
An explanation of behaviour that assumes our personality depends on our traits and the environment
- Came after trait theory
- Recognises the part played by traits
- Suggests that our behaviour depends on what traits we have inherited and how these are influenced by our environment (Lewin 1935)
- Our behaviour (B) us a function (f) of our personal traits (P) and the environment (E) in which we find ourselves.
- B = f (P.E)
- Causes of behaviour can be seperated into two classes of variables:
- Personality and Environment and
- Internal and External
- Suggests that our personality will tend to be predictable in a particular environment, but also our behvaiour may be different in different environments.
There are three main ways to measure personality. These are:
- Responses and actions recorded and analysed. Similarities are noted down.
- Aim for a real life setting. Can see how they operate naturally
- It is expensive and time consuming. Can have low validity as person may be affected by being watched
- Greater validity. Can uncover things that are not possible by saying yes or no.
- Lower reliability of interviewer. Time consuming and expensive
- Most common
- They are cheap and easy. Can be conducted anywhere.
- Gives lots of data
- Requires self assessment
Need to Achieve (nAch)
- Seek approach behaviours
- Seeks out challenges
- Concerned with standards
- Enjoys performing
- Is not afraid to fail
- Internal attributes performance
- Persistent at tasks
- Values feedback from others
- Approach behaviour
Need to Avoid Failure (Naf)
- Shows avoidance behaviours
- Avoid challenging tasks
- Avoids situations
- Hates performing
- Afraid to fail
- External attributes performance
- Lacks task persistence
- Hates feedback
- Avoidance behaviour
Achievement Motivation Theory
The theory that an individuals behaviour is determined by their interaction with the environment and their desires to succeed.
Profile Of Mood States (POMS)
A way of measuring the moods of those who participate in sport.
The Dog Called A Vampire Fat
- Successful athletes show high vigour and anger and low on everything else.
- Unsuccessful athletes show low vigour and relative equal across all other mood states.
- Research has confirmed this
- Findings are not applicable to all performers
- The POMS profile that is associated with successful athletes
Validity, Reliability and Ethics
Research has outlined that there is no such thing as a sport personality
- Difficulty repeating tests as everyone is unique
- No clear definition of personality
- Idea of probing into sensitive areas.
- Interpreting success as a sign of superiority over others
- Interpreting success as playing well.