Personality Theories

View mindmap
  • Personality theories
    • Trait theory
      • An individual is born with innate characteristics, called traits, that are stable, enduring and stay the same in different situations.
        • Behaviour is said to be consistent so that the sports performer will behave the same in most situations.
          • Trait theory attempts to predict behaviour, if they behave the same way, you can expect them to do certain things.
            • For example, an extrovert basketball player may also behave in an extroverted manner whilst at training, while playing and in team discussions.
              • A03- Can behaviour always be predicted?
                • It does not take into account personality change and how it can adjust with the situation.
                  • A03- You are born with an element of personality       (babies have been observed)
                • It does not consider that personality can be formed with experience- unlike in the social learning theory.
                  • Trait theory
                    • An individual is born with innate characteristics, called traits, that are stable, enduring and stay the same in different situations.
                      • Behaviour is said to be consistent so that the sports performer will behave the same in most situations.
                        • Trait theory attempts to predict behaviour, if they behave the same way, you can expect them to do certain things.
                          • For example, an extrovert basketball player may also behave in an extroverted manner whilst at training, while playing and in team discussions.
                            • A03- Can behaviour always be predicted?
                              • It does not take into account personality change and how it can adjust with the situation.
                                • A03- You are born with an element of personality       (babies have been observed)
                              • It does not consider that personality can be formed with experience- unlike in the social learning theory.
                            • Eysenck supported trait theory.
                              • Eysenck beloved there was two dimensions to personality
                                • Introversion- Extroversion
                                  • Stable- Neurotic
                                    • This was shown through Eysencks Personality Inventory (EPI)
                                      • The inventory is used to compare performance, put in place strategies, select captains.
                                        • A03- Doesn't take into account personality change.
                                          • Doesn't consider that our personalities could be formed by experience.
                                            • There are different forms of Eysencks inventory.
                                              • Hard to categorise people on dimensions.
                                          • A03- People are born with an element of personality.
                            • Cattell also supported trait theory.
                              • Cattell though Eysencks theory was too simplistic but also thought personality was based on stable traits.
                                • He proposed that personality could be profiled into 16 categories.
                                  • He devised the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
                                    • A03- He accepted the responses may be different in varying situations, making it more of a dynamic approach.
                                      • Cattell also supported trait theory.
                                        • Cattell though Eysencks theory was too simplistic but also thought personality was based on stable traits.
                                          • He proposed that personality could be profiled into 16 categories.
                                            • He devised the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
                                              • A03- He accepted the responses may be different in varying situations, making it more of a dynamic approach.
                        • Nature side of the Nature vs. Nurture debate.
                • Eysenck supported trait theory.
                  • Eysenck beloved there was two dimensions to personality
                    • Introversion- Extroversion
                      • Stable- Neurotic
                        • This was shown through Eysencks Personality Inventory (EPI)
                          • The inventory is used to compare performance, put in place strategies, select captains.
                            • A03- Doesn't take into account personality change.
                              • Doesn't consider that our personalities could be formed by experience.
                                • There are different forms of Eysencks inventory.
                                  • Hard to categorise people on dimensions.
                              • A03- People are born with an element of personality.
          • Nature side of the Nature vs. Nurture debate.
        • The Social Learning Approach
          • Nurture side of the Nature vs. Nurture debate.
          • Social learning theory offers another explanation to how our personalities develop.
            • Rather than being born with characteristics, we learnt them from other people, especially those we hold in high esteem.
              • Personality traits can be developed by associating with other people and picking up their behaviour through socialisation.
                • It suggests that childhood and the environment affects your personality.
                  • We are more likely to learn reinforced behaviour if it is bright, powerful and consistent.
                    • We learn from the following process- Observe- Identify- Reinforce- Copy
                      • Modelling and reinforcement are key.
                        • Bandura supports this approach
                          • The Social Learning Approach
                            • Nurture side of the Nature vs. Nurture debate.
                            • Social learning theory offers another explanation to how our personalities develop.
                              • Rather than being born with characteristics, we learnt them from other people, especially those we hold in high esteem.
                                • Personality traits can be developed by associating with other people and picking up their behaviour through socialisation.
                                  • It suggests that childhood and the environment affects your personality.
                                    • We are more likely to learn reinforced behaviour if it is bright, powerful and consistent.
                                      • We learn from the following process- Observe- Identify- Reinforce- Copy
                                        • Modelling and reinforcement are key.
                                          • Bandura supports this approach
                                  • A03- It can explain why individuals personalise differ in varying environments.
                                    • It considers changes over time.
                                      • A03- Neglects the fact that traits have impact on the individuals personalities.
                                        • Doesn't allow for easy measurement of personality as the theory puts emphasis on the situation.
                • A03- It can explain why individuals personalise differ in varying environments.
                  • It considers changes over time.
                    • A03- Neglects the fact that traits have impact on the individuals personalities.
                      • Doesn't allow for easy measurement of personality as the theory puts emphasis on the situation.
          • The Interactionist perspective
            • This theory combines trait and social learning.
              • It considers psychological traits and the situation.
                • A03- It is a more dynamic approach and poses greater validity because it can explain why we later in certain situations.
              • Lewin (1935) suggested that behaviour is a function of personality and the environment.
                • B= F ( P x E)
                • Hollander also supported this theory. He suggested that personality is made up of three features- core, typical responses and role-related behaviour.
                  • A03- It is a more dynamic approach and poses greater validity because it can explain why we later in certain situations.

        Comments

        No comments have yet been made

        Similar Physical Education resources:

        See all Physical Education resources »See all Sports psychology resources »