Penicillin

Individuals; Fleming, Lister, Florey, Chain

Factors; War, Chance, Individuals, Communications, Government

Key Dates; 1872, 1928, 1929, 1938, 1941, 1944

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Individuals- Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister was an english sugeon who is most famous for his use of carbolic acid during sugery.

He didn't play much of a role, however it is important to know that Fleming was not the first to discover the penicillin mould.

  • In 1872 Joseph Lister noticed that the mould killed other bacteria(http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=joseph+lister&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=569&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=UsyY3BywkZNGMM:&imgrefurl=http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/226765/enlarge&docid=mnYvJliMSf6lIM&imgurl=http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/226765/large/H4120368-Joseph_Lister,_English_surgeon-SPL.jpg&w=339&h=530&ei=fm3XT_PKEIrb8QOwnoDGAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=243&vpy=175&dur=1034&hovh=281&hovw=179&tx=109&ty=231&sig=112769539243145144810&page=1&tbnh=158&tbnw=100&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:0,i:114)
  • In 1884 he used it to treat a nurse who had an infected wound.
  • However, he never used it again.
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Individuals- Alexander Fleming

Alexander Fleming was a scottish microbiologist who discovered penicillin.

Although he did get the ball rolling- he didn't finish it. He gave up on his discovery however did write his findings down for Florey and Chain to pick up later..

  • He studied at St Mary's Hospital (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=alexander+fleming&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=569&tbm=isch&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fleming&tbnid=z3AX3gVU7nIyiM&docid=btFzAPufq4pMxM&ved=0CAgQhRYoAA&ei=pm_XT5nULM3U8QP67bCkAw&dur=1618)
  • He was interested in microbes causing tetanus and gangrene, and searched for substances to fight them
  • In 1928 he observed that a mould had grown in a culture of bacteria and killed the bacteria around it. He called the active substance in the mould penicillin
  • He made a list of the germs it killed, and used it to treat a scientist's eye infection
  • He wrote his findings in 1929 in a journal.
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Individuals- Howard Florey & Ernst Chain

Florey was an Australian Oxford researcher. Chain was an Oxford biochemist. (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=florey+and+chain&num=10&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=569&tbm=isch&tbnid=gV2qFnFsJHh_XM:&imgrefurl=http://alicexu.wikispaces.com/GD%2BMcdonald&docid=7aMhNU6B731saM&imgurl=http://alicexu.wikispaces.com/file/view/Image6.jpg/276472338/340x255/Image6.jpg&w=187&h=141&ei=NnLXT4WBNcfA0QW2gsivBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=386&vpy=247&dur=280&hovh=112&hovw=149&tx=81&ty=25&sig=112769539243145144810&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=112&tbnw=149&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:100)  It is debateable that these two individuals are the most important as they got the drug mass produced.

  • 1938 Florey & Chain were researching how germs could be killed and came across Fleming's article.
  • They tried to get funding from the British government, but they could only give them £25 because the war was happening.
  • Florey was determined and went to the US and got funding for 5 years
  • By 1941 they had enough to test on Albert Alexander- a policeman who was dying.
  • They kept recycling his urine to get as much as possible, but they eventually ran out and he died.
  • 1941 Pearl Harbour was attacked by the japanese.
  • The US government realised the potential and made interest free loans to companies to buy the expensive equipments.
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Factors- War + Chance

War

  • The outbreak of WW2 meant that it was important to develop penicillin. 
  • The americans were keen to develop the drug for soldiers
  • Fleming was investigating infected wounds of WW1 soldiers.  (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=bomb+cartoon&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=569&tbm=isch&tbnid=YcE0qPax6whJ0M:&imgrefurl=http://www.mbandf.com/parallel-world/archives/index.php/207/Interesting-furniture-designs--Part-2&docid=e9Lv1glnJCK4QM&imgurl=http://www.mbandf.com/_i/blog/images/2009/bomb_vase%281%29.jpg&w=450&h=367&ei=JnPXT4HMJIyc8APV9-w-&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=882&vpy=253&dur=246&hovh=203&hovw=249&tx=167&ty=173&sig=112769539243145144810&page=1&tbnh=156&tbnw=201&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0,i:156)

Chance

  • It is suspected that the mould in Fleming's experiments blew in from an open window.
  • Fleming left a pile of dirty bacteria dishes out and went on holiday
  • Fleming noticed a change in one of the dishes.  (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=dice+cartoon&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=569&tbm=isch&tbnid=MA0WvLdoB5eXTM:&imgrefurl=http://diaryofasnuggleslut.blogspot.com/&docid=WXOcoMnpzHjBQM&imgurl=http://iamyouasheisme.files.wordpress.com/2007/12/dice.gif&w=344&h=291&ei=zHPXT4CCOoyc8APX9-w-&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=202&vpy=250&dur=2&hovh=206&hovw=244&tx=141&ty=168&sig=112769539243145144810&page=1&tbnh=112&tbnw=130&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:0,i:105)
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Factors- Communications + Government

Communications (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=cartoon+phone&num=10&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=569&tbm=isch&tbnid=TIddLKdyunsNoM:&imgrefurl=http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com/cartoon-telephone.html&docid=joxpIZp-5XiZqM&imgurl=http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com/image-files/cartoon-telephone-6.gif&w=400&h=400&ei=GXXXT8WwDsql0QXZkOWxBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=884&vpy=182&dur=318&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=84&ty=83&sig=112769539243145144810&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=159&tbnw=141&start=0&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:151)

  • Florey and Chain read Fleming's papers on Penicillin
  • Florey flew to the US to interest American drug companies in developing the drug.

Government (http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=cartoon+phone&num=10&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=569&tbm=isch&tbnid=TIddLKdyunsNoM:&imgrefurl=http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com/cartoon-telephone.html&docid=joxpIZp-5XiZqM&imgurl=http://www.how-to-draw-funny-cartoons.com/image-files/cartoon-telephone-6.gif&w=400&h=400&ei=GXXXT8WwDsql0QXZkOWxBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=884&vpy=182&dur=318&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=84&ty=83&sig=112769539243145144810&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=159&tbnw=141&start=0&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:151)

  • Fleming did not get funded so he stopped researching
  • The British government could only afford to give Florey and Chain £25, so they went to America
  • The American government made interest free loans to drug companies.
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Key Dates

Key Dates;

  • 1872 Joseph Lister noticed mould
  • 1884 used it to treat nurse
  • 1928 Fleming discovered penicillin
  • 1929 wrote findings in a medical journal
  • 1938 Florey and Chain started researching
  • 1941 had enough to test on one person
  • 1941 Pearl Harbour
  • 1944 D-Day
  • 1944 Fleming made ''Man of the Year'
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Who Deserved the Credit?

Fleming, Florey and Chain all won the Nobel Prize for Physiology + Medicine for the discovery and development of penicillin.

Who do you think deserved the credit?

Fleming:

  • Discovered the drug, even though people such as Lister have discovered the mould before him
  • He found the drug by chance, however he did stop to look at it further
  • A friend of Fleming said that he thought he "didn't deserve the Nobel Prize" however "couldn't help enjoying all the undeserved fame."

Florey + Chain:

  • They found drew the drug into the public eye and got it mass produced
  • They tested the drug, which Fleming failed to do
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Comments

Maryam

These are really helpful! Thanks! You taking the GCSE on Friday?

Imogen

Maryam wrote:

These are really helpful! Thanks! You taking the GCSE on Friday?

No problem :) and yeah I am good luck!

Dana

THANKS THESES ARE REALY GOOD AND WILL REALY HELP ME!!! IM TKAING IT ON FRIDAY TOOOOO GOOD LUCK AND I AM SURE YOU WILL BE AMAZING AS THE NOTES ARE REALY GOOD!! XXXXXXXXX

Hannah

im taking it too! thanks for these notes! good luck <3

Amy

Probably best notes on here - thank you! good luck :) x

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