Key Historical Personalities
- Hippias – last tyrant of Athens, whose expulsion in 510 paved the way for democracy
- Harmodius and Aristogeiton – conspirators who killed Hippias’ brother in 514, often mentioned as ‘liberators’ though they provoked tyranny of Hippias
- Cleisthenes – member of the eupatrid family of the Alkmaeonids, who reformed the tribes and introduced democracy
- Miltiades – strategos and hero of Marathon in 490
- Themistocles – ‘popular democrat’ and genius of Salamis in 480, later sought exile in Persia
- Aristides – called ‘the Just’, played an important part at Salamis and organised the Delian League
- Cimon – son of Miltiades, his campaign against the retreating Persians in Ionia made the Athenian empire possible
- Ephialtes – radical who removed the remaining powers of the Areopagus and was murdered in 461
- Lysicles - a politician at the end of Pericles’ career, he died on active service in 428
Key Historical Personalities cont'd
- Pericles – an Alkmaeonid politician, came to power after the death of Ephialtes, dominated Athenian policy for 30 years.
- Aspasia – Spartan mistress of Pericles
- Cleon – demagogue who came to prominence after the death of Pericles.
- Cleonymus – follower of Cleon, noted for greed and running away in battle
- Theorus – follower of Cleon
- Demosthenes – strategos credited with capture of Sphacteria in 424
- Nicias – strategos noted for wealth and caution
- Lamachus – strategos whose name appears on Peace of Nicias treaty.
- Hyperbolus – successor to Cleon as demagogic politician.
- Magnes, Morsimus, Cratinus, Crates, Connas, Arignotas, Ariphrades, Theognis and Chaeris – writers and performers noted (probably unfairly) for their awfulness
- Pittalus – a well-known medical practitioner
Timeline of Pelopenesian War
449 - Peace of Kallias
445 - 30 year treaty between Sparta & Athens
435 - Epidamnous coup
432 - Megarian Decree
431 - 1st Achridamian invasion
429 - Plauge; death of Pericles; no Archidamian invasion
428 - Revolt of Mytilene
425 - Acharians performed at Leneia; Pylos
424 - Knights performed
424 - Amphipolis - death of Cleon and Brasidas
421 - Peace of Nicias; Peace performed
- Athenian festival in honor of Dionysus
- Held during the month of Anthesterion (Feb. – Mar.)
- Celebrated the beginning of spring and the maturing of the wine stored at the previous vintage
- Lasted three days
- Libations to the god from newly opened casks
- Popular merrymaking
- Secret ceremony of marriage between Dionysus and the wife of Archon Basillus
- Underworld rites.
- October or November, in the season when
- various phratries (clans) met to induct new members, register children born since the previous festival, and pay homage to the gods
- hill of Ares
- 370 ft (113 m) high
- NW of the Acropolis of Athens,
- sacred meeting place of the prime council of Athens.
- This council represented the ancient council of elders, which usually combined judicial and legislative functions from the beginning
- represented in the 5th and 6th cent. B.C.
- stronghold of aristocracy
- The ekklesia was the principal assembly of Athens.
- opened to all male citizens over the age of 18 by Solon in 594 BC
- all classes of citizens in Athens were able to participate. The ecclesia opened the doors for all citizens, regardless of class, to nominate and vote for magistrates - indirectly voting for the Areopagus - have the final decision on legislation, war and peace, and have the right to call magistrates to account after their year of office.
- only wealthy enough to spend much of their time away from home would have been able to participate until Pericles' reforms in early 451-2 BCE
- responsible for declaring war, military strategy, and electing strategoi and other officials.
- agenda established by Boule,
- ten tribes chosen by lot every year fifty of its members to serve on the boulē (‘council’).
- Each group served as the executive committee of the boule for one-tenth of the year,
- old boule consisted of 100 members of each of the four ancestral tribes.
- Cleisthenes created ten new tribes and made the boule consist of fifty men from each of these tribes.
- served every day
- received ambassadors from foreign states and generally conducted the day to day business of the state.
- They ate at public expense in the Tholos
- one member was selected by lot to serve as the foreman for 24
- He was the chief executive officer of Athens.
- No man was allowed to hold this office more than once
- chief magistrate magistrates in a city-state.
- nine archons divided state duties:
- archon eponymous headed the boule and Ecclesia,
- polemarch commanded troops and presided over legal cases involving foreigners,
- archon basileus headed state religion and the Areopagus,
- six others handled various judicial matters.
- only elected aristocrats could serve, for a year.
- chosen by a combination of election and lot.
- In the 5th century BC the authority of the archons declined as elected generals assumed most of their powers.
- Ten generals elected under democracy and among these they were the most prominent.
- One from each tribe
- not selected by lot - needed to be experienced in war and capable of operating on the level of interstate relations,
- generalship was open to any citizen, but only prominent upper class citizens were elected.
- paid but only when on campaign.
- received a share of the booty and
- interstate diplomacy could involve lavish gift giving, legitimate or otherwise.
- Each year the Athenians were asked in the assembly whether they wished to hold an ostracism
- Ostracism would be held two months later.
- In a roped-off area of the agora, citizens scratched the name of a citizen they wished to expel on potshards, and deposited them in urns.
- if a minimum of six thousand votes were reached then the ostracism took place: the person receiving the highest number of votes was exiled for ten years.
- The person nominated had ten days to leave the city — if he attempted to return, the penalty was death.
- property of the man banished was not confiscated and there was no loss of status.
- After the ten years he was allowed to return without stigma.
- It was possible for the assembly to recall an ostracized person ahead of time;
- method of selection by drawing straws
- It is used particularly to allot decision makers.
- sortition was the primary method for appointing officials,