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Physical components of fitness

Power = A combination of speed and strength (speedXstrength)

Flexibility = Range of movement at a joint

Strength = The amount of force that muscles are able to exert against a resistance

Explosive strenth = Maximum force in one movement e.g. take off

Dynamic strength = Repetitive muscle contraction (strength when moving) e.g. Rowing

Static strength = Maximum force against an immovable e.g. Rugby scrum (Isometric contractions)

Speed = The time taken to move all or parts of the body through a specified distance

Cardiovascular Endurance = The ability to utilise your aerobic energy pathway to continue

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Skill related Factors of fitness

Balance = Being physically stable when the weight of the body is distributed evenly

Muscular Endurance = The ability of the muscle to work repeatedly over a prolongued period of time against a resistance

Agility = The ability to change your body position quickly or change direction at speed

Reaction Time = The time it takes for an athlete to react to a stimulus

Timing = Athletes ability to execute a skill or action precisely when they need to

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Skeletal System


  • Movement

Hinge joint - Elbow and knee                           Flexion - Decreasing angle (bending elbow) Bicep = flexor

Ball and socket joint - Hip and shoulder          Extension - Increasing angle (straightening arm) Tricep = extensor

Pivot joint - Neck                                            Abduction - Moving away from body (star jump) Trapezius = Abductor

Saddle joint - Thumb                                       Adduction - Moving towards body (arms in) Latissimus Dorsi = Adductor

Gliding joint - Hands and feet                          Rotation - Moving freely in a curve (ankle circling)

Condyloid joint - Wrist

  • Support
  • Shape
  • Protection
  • Blood cell production
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Muscular System


  • Skeletal - Voluntary (under our control)
  • Cardiac - The heart
  • Involuntary - Automaticically functioning to keep us alive

 Muscles can only PULL

Muscle is attached to bone by TENDONS

Muscles work in PAIRS around a JOINT to PULL a BONE




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Types of contraction

Isotonic contractions:

Concentric = Muscle tenses and shortens (flexion)

Eccentric = Muscle lengthens under tension (Extension)

Isometric Contractions:

  • Very little movement in muscles despite being tense
  • Very little movement in joint
  • Static strength (Wall sit)

 Muscle pairs:                                                           Other important muscles:

  • Hamstring+quadriceps - Running&kicking           1. Pectorals - Power
  • Biceps+Triceps - Throwing&lifting                        2. Gastrocnemius - Jumping

                                                                                   3. Abdominals - Movement at waist, posture 

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Training and competition

Training to improve:

Specificity - To sport

Progression - Your training progresses by overloading your body

Overload - Working harder than normal:                  Frequency

Reversibility - Stopping training                               Intensity

Tedium - Avoid boredom, e.g. Circuit Training          Time                                                                                                                        


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Training Thresholds

Consider: Age, experience, ability

Training threshold = Minimum Heart Rate to be achieved to ensure fitness improves

Training Zone = Range of HR within which a specific effect will take place

Training Zones:

  • Aerobic - 60-80% of MHR (Long time, low intensity)
  • Anaerobic - 80-90% of MHR (short time, high intensity)

MHR = 220-Your age

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School and PE


  • Improves fitness
  • Extra qualifications
  • Improves healthy lifestyle knowledge
  • Learn skills and values (etiquette in society)
  • Encourages sport later in life

In schools:

  • Timetabled lessons
  • Coaching awards
  • Extra-curricular provision
  • Encouragement to join local clubs and teams
  • Visits from outside links
  • DofE award offered
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Healthy Schools Programme

  • Runs alongside PE - Whole school approach
  • Aims to create happier, healthier children

Personal, social and health education (PSHE)

  • Sex, relationships and drugs
  • Being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving
  • Making informed life decisions

Healthy Eating

  • Confidence, skills, knowledge about food
  • Provide healthy food
  • Works with School Food Trust
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Healthy schools programme continued

Physical Activity

  • Opportunities
  • Education of benefits

Emotional Health and Wellbeing

  • Support vulnerable individuals and groups - Build confidence and emotional resilience
  • Bullying Policy
  • Rewards and behaviour Policies
  • Pastoral team/system
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