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The participant as an individual

Women are more flexible than men due to having less muscle mass. Flexibility decreases with age.

Men are stronger than women due to having more muscle mass. Strength decreases with age.

Men have a better oxygen carrying capacity because they have a larger heart and lungs. Oxygen carrying capacity decreases with age because the heart becomes less efficient.

Experience and decision making skills increase with age.

Men are taller, broader shoulders, narrow hips and more muscle mass. Women are shorter, narrow shoulders, wider hips and a higher percentage of fat.

Men are naturally faster, stronger and more powerful due to their high levels of muscle mass.

Girls mature faster than boys but boys physically develop faster than girls. Girls suffer from a hormonal imbalance during their period which could have a negative impact on performance.

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Perceived differences and discrimination

Gender equality


Girls and boys are channeled into certain sports

at school due to stereotypes, e.g.


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Age&Gender Divisions in Competition

Primary school - mixed gender

Men and women compete against eachother in sports such as equestrian events, mixed double in tennis and badminton.

Age divisions - Health&Safety

Some sports do not have an age limit, e.g. Golf, Gymnastics, diving.

Weight could also be a division, e.g. Boxing.

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Physique (Somatotypes)

Ectomorph: Narrow shoulders&Waist, suited to marathon running&High jump

Mesomorph: Wdge shape, broad shoulders compared to narrow waist and hips, very muscular, suited to boxing, swimming and gymnastics

Endomorph: Pear shaped, narrow shoulders compared to wide waist and hips, short legs compared to trunk, suited to rugby&Sumo wrestling

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Training levels&Seasons

Pre season = Developing fitness

Peak season = Skills and tactics

Post season = Rest&Recovery whilst maintaining a good diet and a standard level of exercise/fitness

Time is a sports participation factor as people have work, family and social commitments to sustain.

Money is a sports participation factor as people have to be able to afford to pay for sports facilities/equipment etc.

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Humidity - Amount of water vapour in the air (High humidity = little water vapour) therefore its hard for the body to keep cool and hydrated.

Terrain - landscape/surface e.g. surfing, rock climbing.

Altitude - Height above sea level (Higher = less oxygen). Training at high altitude increases an athletes oxygen carrying capacity, e.g. Marathon runners.

Pollution - Unhealthy

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Risk assessments&control








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Physical&Mental Demands of Performance

Fatigue is extreme physical or mental tiredness - a result of extreme exertion. It can cause:

Lack of strength, lack of energy, lack of concentration.

Local muscular fatigue is a specific part of the body becoming fatigued.

Fatigue is DETRIMENTAL to performance (makes you play worse)

May lead to injury...

Stress is the body's reaction to change.

Excited tension can cause tight muscles, anxiety can affect decision making, nerves can cause sickness, stress decreases motivation levels, anxiety can trigger adrenalin which can positively impact performance.

Team sports can be more stressful due to relying on and letting down other team members. Boredom can affect performance.

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Intovert = Sports which involve precision, self-motivation, intricate skills (individual, e.g. Snooker)

Extrovert = Sports which involve excitment, speed (team sports e.g. Basketball)

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Injury and Accidents

Internal - Caused by performer,e.g. sprains or strains

External - Caused by impact or environment, e.g. facilities or weather (opponents or faulty equipment/clothing)

Closed fracture = Broken bone inside skin

Open fracture = Broken bone outside skin

Dislocation = Wrenched out of joint

Sprain = Overstretching of ligerments

Strain = Overstretching of muscles

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Injury&Accident precautions

1. Risk assessment

2. Warm-up:

Pulse raiser;


Skill related activity

3. Cool-down:

Safely brings heart rate down

Prevents build up of lactic acid

4. Rules

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Respiratory System

Respiration is the release of energy fom glucose.

Inspiration = Intercostal muscles contract

Expiration = Intercostal muscles relax

Methods of training:

Aerobic Respiration = Glucose + Oxygen -> Energy  + Carbon dioxide + Water

Aerobic Respiration is used for long periods of time because it uses glucose AND oxygen to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water, e.g. Marathon running.

Anaerobic Respiration = Glucose -> Energy + Lactic acid

Anaerobic Respiration is used for short bursts of energy because it only uses glucose to provide energy to the muscles, e.g. 100m sprint. This means we 'owe' the muscles oxygen after anaerobically exercising so we are in 'oxygen debt'.

Circuit training is a series of timed activities which use both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

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Recovery period&Muscle pairs

We breath deeply after anaerobically exercising in order to pay back the oxygen we owe to the muscles and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Sweating helps to regulate body temperature.

Voluntary muscles - One contracts whilst the other relaxes. The relaxing muscle is called the secondary muscle.Tendons attach muscle to bone.

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Gaseous Exchange


In the ALVEOLI. (Part of lungs). The alveoli are tiny air sacks which diffuse incoming oxygen into the blood stream. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood stream into the alveoli ready for expiration.

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Circularatory System

Function = Transports blood around the body.

Secondary Function = Regulates body temperature (sweat and breath)

1. Blood:

Red blood cells - Transports oxygen from lungs to muscles

White blood cells - Fight infection and disease

Plasma - Carries nutrients to the muscles and waste products back to the lungs

Platelets - Sunstance that clots and repairs cuts and wounds

2. Heart

3. Blood vessels

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Cardiovascular System

Respiratory System and Circularatoy System working together.


Maximum Hear Rate (MHR) = 220 - Your Age

The lower your resting heart rate, the higher your fitness level.


The right side of the heart collects deoxygenated blood from the body and takes it to the lungs where it collects oxygenated blood and drops off the carbon dioxide.

The left side of the heart collects oxygenated blood from the lungs and diffuses it into the blood stream.

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Cardiovascular System continued


Blood vessels:

Arteries - Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart

Capillaries - Thinnest blood vessels

Veins - Transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart

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Leisure and recreation - Leisure time


Active leisure = Physical or mental energy needed for either high or low impact activities such as yoga or kickboxing - improves strength, stamina and flexibility (physical) relieves stress (mental) socialising (social)

Passive leisure = No physical or mental energy needed such as watching TV or paying on the computer - reduces stress (mental)

Shopping with friends relives stress (mental) and improves communication and interaction skills (social)

Leisure time increases with age (Job, family). Leisure time has generally increased (higher levels of unemployment, shorter working hours, more part time work, technological advances which save time)

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Leisure and recreation - Industry

User groups = Groups of people targeted by the leisure industry that need special provision for them to participate (Mothers with toddlers, Unemployed people, shift workers)

Recreation = Relaxing, could be a physical activity for an INTRINSIC REWARD

Intrinsic rewards = Taking part to feel good about yourself and to achive internal satisfaction from being successful

Extrinsic rewards = Taking part for tangible awards or recognition

Recreational activities vary with age, e.g. Bowls, accessability, e.g. Surfing and cost, e.g. Rowing


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Carbs - Energy e.g. Pasta, bread

Fats - Energy used when there is a lack of carbs&Protects organs, e.g. Cheese, milk

Protein - Growth&Repair, e.g. Meat, fish

Fibre - Regulates digestive system, e.g. Fruit&Veg

Minerals - Calcium for strong bones&Iron to prevent fatigue, e.g. Milk&Red meat

Vitamins - A to maintain vision&C to maintain healthy skin, e.g. Carrots&Oranges

Fluid - Prevents dehydration&reguates body temperature, e.g. Water

Poor diet = Malnutrition (weakness due to insuffivient food or unbaanced diet), Obesity (overweight due to over eating or ack of exercise), Anorexia (Dangerously thin due to eating disorder from bad mental health through fear of gaining weight)

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Specific diets

The higher your activity levels, the more food you need to eat to supply your body with sufficient energy. Particuar sports sometimes need particuar diets...

Marathon runners use 'carbohydrate loading' to store maximum energy. They eat lots more carbohydrates in the week eading up to an event and train less. Therefore, glycogen stores increase in the muscles which improves performance because it delays fatigue.

Power athletes and body builders have a high protein diet to build muscle and lose fat. The diet has to be accompanied by a specific training programme for it to work.

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Health, fitness&a healthy, active lifestyle


Smoking can cause cancer

Alcohol can cause liver damage

Poor diet can cause poor health/balanced diet maintains good health

Social life, activity levels and economic state can all affect your health

Healthy lifestyle = Improved body shape, less stress, reduced chance of illness, improved posture and toning, improved strength, stamina&flexibility, more friends, improved social skills.

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