The participant as an individual
Women are more flexible than men due to having less muscle mass. Flexibility decreases with age.
Men are stronger than women due to having more muscle mass. Strength decreases with age.
Men have a better oxygen carrying capacity because they have a larger heart and lungs. Oxygen carrying capacity decreases with age because the heart becomes less efficient.
Experience and decision making skills increase with age.
Men are taller, broader shoulders, narrow hips and more muscle mass. Women are shorter, narrow shoulders, wider hips and a higher percentage of fat.
Men are naturally faster, stronger and more powerful due to their high levels of muscle mass.
Girls mature faster than boys but boys physically develop faster than girls. Girls suffer from a hormonal imbalance during their period which could have a negative impact on performance.
Perceived differences and discrimination
Girls and boys are channeled into certain sports
at school due to stereotypes, e.g.
Age&Gender Divisions in Competition
Primary school - mixed gender
Men and women compete against eachother in sports such as equestrian events, mixed double in tennis and badminton.
Age divisions - Health&Safety
Some sports do not have an age limit, e.g. Golf, Gymnastics, diving.
Weight could also be a division, e.g. Boxing.
Ectomorph: Narrow shoulders&Waist, suited to marathon running&High jump
Mesomorph: Wdge shape, broad shoulders compared to narrow waist and hips, very muscular, suited to boxing, swimming and gymnastics
Endomorph: Pear shaped, narrow shoulders compared to wide waist and hips, short legs compared to trunk, suited to rugby&Sumo wrestling
Pre season = Developing fitness
Peak season = Skills and tactics
Post season = Rest&Recovery whilst maintaining a good diet and a standard level of exercise/fitness
Time is a sports participation factor as people have work, family and social commitments to sustain.
Money is a sports participation factor as people have to be able to afford to pay for sports facilities/equipment etc.
Humidity - Amount of water vapour in the air (High humidity = little water vapour) therefore its hard for the body to keep cool and hydrated.
Terrain - landscape/surface e.g. surfing, rock climbing.
Altitude - Height above sea level (Higher = less oxygen). Training at high altitude increases an athletes oxygen carrying capacity, e.g. Marathon runners.
Pollution - Unhealthy
CHECK THE FACILITY/ENVIRONMENT FOR DANGER!
Physical&Mental Demands of Performance
Fatigue is extreme physical or mental tiredness - a result of extreme exertion. It can cause:
Lack of strength, lack of energy, lack of concentration.
Local muscular fatigue is a specific part of the body becoming fatigued.
Fatigue is DETRIMENTAL to performance (makes you play worse)
May lead to injury...
Stress is the body's reaction to change.
Excited tension can cause tight muscles, anxiety can affect decision making, nerves can cause sickness, stress decreases motivation levels, anxiety can trigger adrenalin which can positively impact performance.
Team sports can be more stressful due to relying on and letting down other team members. Boredom can affect performance.
Intovert = Sports which involve precision, self-motivation, intricate skills (individual, e.g. Snooker)
Extrovert = Sports which involve excitment, speed (team sports e.g. Basketball)
Injury and Accidents
Internal - Caused by performer,e.g. sprains or strains
External - Caused by impact or environment, e.g. facilities or weather (opponents or faulty equipment/clothing)
Closed fracture = Broken bone inside skin
Open fracture = Broken bone outside skin
Dislocation = Wrenched out of joint
Sprain = Overstretching of ligerments
Strain = Overstretching of muscles
1. Risk assessment
Skill related activity
Safely brings heart rate down
Prevents build up of lactic acid
Respiration is the release of energy fom glucose.
Inspiration = Intercostal muscles contract
Expiration = Intercostal muscles relax
Methods of training:
Aerobic Respiration = Glucose + Oxygen -> Energy + Carbon dioxide + Water
Aerobic Respiration is used for long periods of time because it uses glucose AND oxygen to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water, e.g. Marathon running.
Anaerobic Respiration = Glucose -> Energy + Lactic acid
Anaerobic Respiration is used for short bursts of energy because it only uses glucose to provide energy to the muscles, e.g. 100m sprint. This means we 'owe' the muscles oxygen after anaerobically exercising so we are in 'oxygen debt'.
Circuit training is a series of timed activities which use both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Recovery period&Muscle pairs
We breath deeply after anaerobically exercising in order to pay back the oxygen we owe to the muscles and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Sweating helps to regulate body temperature.
Voluntary muscles - One contracts whilst the other relaxes. The relaxing muscle is called the secondary muscle.Tendons attach muscle to bone.
In the ALVEOLI. (Part of lungs). The alveoli are tiny air sacks which diffuse incoming oxygen into the blood stream. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood stream into the alveoli ready for expiration.
Function = Transports blood around the body.
Secondary Function = Regulates body temperature (sweat and breath)
Red blood cells - Transports oxygen from lungs to muscles
White blood cells - Fight infection and disease
Plasma - Carries nutrients to the muscles and waste products back to the lungs
Platelets - Sunstance that clots and repairs cuts and wounds
3. Blood vessels
Respiratory System and Circularatoy System working together.
Maximum Hear Rate (MHR) = 220 - Your Age
The lower your resting heart rate, the higher your fitness level.
Involves HEART and BLOOD VESSELS
The right side of the heart collects deoxygenated blood from the body and takes it to the lungs where it collects oxygenated blood and drops off the carbon dioxide.
The left side of the heart collects oxygenated blood from the lungs and diffuses it into the blood stream.
Cardiovascular System continued
Arteries - Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
Capillaries - Thinnest blood vessels
Veins - Transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart
Leisure and recreation - Leisure time
YOUR FREE TIME WHEN YOU CAN DO WHAT YOU CHOOSE.
Active leisure = Physical or mental energy needed for either high or low impact activities such as yoga or kickboxing - improves strength, stamina and flexibility (physical) relieves stress (mental) socialising (social)
Passive leisure = No physical or mental energy needed such as watching TV or paying on the computer - reduces stress (mental)
Shopping with friends relives stress (mental) and improves communication and interaction skills (social)
Leisure time increases with age (Job, family). Leisure time has generally increased (higher levels of unemployment, shorter working hours, more part time work, technological advances which save time)
Leisure and recreation - Industry
User groups = Groups of people targeted by the leisure industry that need special provision for them to participate (Mothers with toddlers, Unemployed people, shift workers)
Recreation = Relaxing, could be a physical activity for an INTRINSIC REWARD
Intrinsic rewards = Taking part to feel good about yourself and to achive internal satisfaction from being successful
Extrinsic rewards = Taking part for tangible awards or recognition
Recreational activities vary with age, e.g. Bowls, accessability, e.g. Surfing and cost, e.g. Rowing
SWIMMING IS SUITABLE FOR ALL AGES AT A LOW COST.
Carbs - Energy e.g. Pasta, bread
Fats - Energy used when there is a lack of carbs&Protects organs, e.g. Cheese, milk
Protein - Growth&Repair, e.g. Meat, fish
Fibre - Regulates digestive system, e.g. Fruit&Veg
Minerals - Calcium for strong bones&Iron to prevent fatigue, e.g. Milk&Red meat
Vitamins - A to maintain vision&C to maintain healthy skin, e.g. Carrots&Oranges
Fluid - Prevents dehydration®uates body temperature, e.g. Water
Poor diet = Malnutrition (weakness due to insuffivient food or unbaanced diet), Obesity (overweight due to over eating or ack of exercise), Anorexia (Dangerously thin due to eating disorder from bad mental health through fear of gaining weight)
The higher your activity levels, the more food you need to eat to supply your body with sufficient energy. Particuar sports sometimes need particuar diets...
Marathon runners use 'carbohydrate loading' to store maximum energy. They eat lots more carbohydrates in the week eading up to an event and train less. Therefore, glycogen stores increase in the muscles which improves performance because it delays fatigue.
Power athletes and body builders have a high protein diet to build muscle and lose fat. The diet has to be accompanied by a specific training programme for it to work.
Health, fitness&a healthy, active lifestyle
HEALTH = A STATE OF COMPLETE PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING AND NOT MERELY THE ABSCENCE OF DISEASE.
Smoking can cause cancer
Alcohol can cause liver damage
Poor diet can cause poor health/balanced diet maintains good health
Social life, activity levels and economic state can all affect your health
Healthy lifestyle = Improved body shape, less stress, reduced chance of illness, improved posture and toning, improved strength, stamina&flexibility, more friends, improved social skills.