Injuries & Osteoporosis.
- Osteoporosis: Bones become lighter, thinner with age and their density reduces, Therefore they break easier and become weaker.
- Compound Fracture: A seriously broken bone that protudes the skin, Would need an operation to fix. Caused by impact or fall.
- Greenstick Fracture: A break only part way across the bone, Commonly in wrists. Caused by impact or fall. Would need hospital/medical treatment.
- Simple Fracture: A break linear break in the bone with no movement of bone and causes very little damage to surrounding tissue. Most commonly found in young children because they have softer bones.
- Stress Fracture: Muscle gets tired and unable to absorb shock or increasing exercise too rapidly. Rest is essential.
- Tennis Elbow: Joint imflammation of the tendons outside the elbow joint. Repetitive movement of hitting tennis/golf ball. R.I.C.E R=Rest I=Ice C=Compression E=Elevation
- Sprain: A twist or tear of a ligament. Rest essential. Caused by sudden lost of balance of fall.
- Torn Cartilage: A tear to the cartilage between the bones. Would need key-hole surgery to fix. Caused by impact.
- Dislocation: Movement at a joint from its normal position. Can be fixed by first aid at the scene no visit to hospital needed, unless serious.
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- Triceps- Extend the arm at the elbow- Press up, Throwing a Javelin.
- Biceps-Flex the arm at the elbow- Pull up, Achery.
- Deltoids- Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder- Bowling in Cricket.
- Pectorals- Adduct the arm at the shoulder- Forehand drive in Tennis.
- Trapezius- Hold the shoulder in place, move head back and sideways- Hold head up in rugby scrum.
- Gluteals- Adduct and extend leg at the hips- Pullin back leg before kicking a ball.
- Quadriceps- Extend the leg at the knee- Kicking a ball jumping upwards.
- Hamstrings- Flex the leg at the knee- Bending knee before kicking a ball.
- Gastrocnemius- Pointing the toes, help to flex knee- Running.
- Latissimus dorsi- Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder-Butterfly stroke in swimming.
- Abdominals- Flex the trunk across the stomach- Pulling the body down when hurdling.
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Types of Muscle.
- Skeletal: Voluntary muscles have fast twitch and slow twitch fibres. Fast twitch fibres contract quickly, but do not use oxygen well and tire quickly. Slow twitch fibres contract slowly, but use oxygen well and keep going for a long time.
- Smooth: They work without us thinking about it (Involutary).
- Cardiac: The only muscle that never tires until death, or cardiac arrest.
- Isotonic: Muscle contracts to create movement, it is called isotonic contraction.
- Isometric: Muscle contracts with no resulting movement it is called and isometric movement.
- Tone: Can be seen when muscles are in a state of slight tension and they are ready for action. Good regular training creates a good muscle posture.
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