Revision for PE

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Health: the state of complete physical, social and mental well being. Not just the absence of disease or infirmary.

Fitness: the ability to meet the demands of the environment.

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Mental benefits:

  • improved confidence
  • relief of stress/tension and stress related illness

Physical benefits:

  • losing weight
  • improved posture
  • improved body shape

Social benefits:

  • meeting people
  • making friends
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Sports clubs

Being a member of a sports club and regularyvparticipating in sport will develop personal qualities from:

  • co-operation - working with others
  • competition - testing yourself against others
  • physical challenge - testing yourself against the environment or your best performances.
  • aesthetic appreciation - recognising quality of movement in a performance.
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Health related fitness

Health related factors are:

  • cardiovascular fitness: the ability to exercise the body for long periods of time, effectively and efficiently. Often referee to as stamina.
  • muscular strength: amount of force a muscle can exert to a resistance. Helps to hit, tackle and throw.
  • muscular endurance: ability to use voluntary muscles many times without coming tired. Helps people to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer
  • flexibility: range of movement possible around a joint. Allows performers to stretch and reach further.
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Skill related

  • agility: combination of flexibility and speed and the ability to move quickly, changing direction and speed whenever needed.
  • balance: ability to maintain a given posture in static and dynamic situations to be able to stay level and stable.
  • co-ordination: ability to link all parts of a movement into one efficient smooth movement and the ability to be able to control the body during physical activity.
  • reaction time: time taken for the body, or part of the body, to respond to a stimulus. Is divided into two specific areas:
  • simple reaction time: were someone must react to something as it happens. Eg, sprinter reacting to the sound of a gun at the start of the race.
  • choice reaction time: someone is able to size up a situation then decide when they are going to react. Eg, footballer deciding the best time to make a tackle.
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S - pecificity: training that is particularly suited to a particular sport or activity.

P - rogression: where training increases gradually as the body adjusts to the increased demands being made on it.

O - verload: making the body work harder than normal in order to improve it.

R - eversibility: long periods of rest will lead to decline in fitness and all gains made will be lost. This is why it is important to keep rests short.

T - edium: don't make it boring, vary the types and methods of training.

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Frequency - how often you train.

Intensity - how hard you train

Time - when and how long you train for

Type - decide which methods of training you use

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Methods of training

Circuit training - improves muscular strength

  • easy to set up
    Disadvantages - not suitable for one person

Continuous training - involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. Improves cardiovascular fitness.

Cross training - using another sport or activity to improve fitness.

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Training session

1. Warm-up

  • raises heart rate and body temperature
  • prepares muscles, ligaments and joints for the activity
  • practicing techniques and skills that will be used during the performance

2. Main activity

  • fitness training: linked to repeated technique work
  • skill development - drills or team practices
  • modified or conditional games

3. Warm down

  • light exercises to remove carbon dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products
  • gentle stretching to prevent later muscle stiffness.
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Body types

Endomorph: pear-shaped, wide hips, wide shoulders, a lot of fat on body, arms and thighs. When fit, ideal for weightlifting, wrestling.

Ectomorphs: narrow shaped, thin faced, little fat or muscle, tall. Ideal for basket ball.

Mesomorphs: wedge-shaped, wide shoulders, narrow hips, muscular. Ideal for sprinters.

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Skill related 2

Power: combination of the maximum amount of strength with the maximum amount of speed. Closely linked to explosive strength.

Speed: ability to move all parts of the body as quickly as possible. Combination of reaction time and movement time.

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