Health: the state of complete physical, social and mental well being. Not just the absence of disease or infirmary.
Fitness: the ability to meet the demands of the environment.
- improved confidence
- relief of stress/tension and stress related illness
- losing weight
- improved posture
- improved body shape
- meeting people
- making friends
Being a member of a sports club and regularyvparticipating in sport will develop personal qualities from:
- co-operation - working with others
- competition - testing yourself against others
- physical challenge - testing yourself against the environment or your best performances.
- aesthetic appreciation - recognising quality of movement in a performance.
Health related fitness
Health related factors are:
- cardiovascular fitness: the ability to exercise the body for long periods of time, effectively and efficiently. Often referee to as stamina.
- muscular strength: amount of force a muscle can exert to a resistance. Helps to hit, tackle and throw.
- muscular endurance: ability to use voluntary muscles many times without coming tired. Helps people to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer
- flexibility: range of movement possible around a joint. Allows performers to stretch and reach further.
- agility: combination of flexibility and speed and the ability to move quickly, changing direction and speed whenever needed.
- balance: ability to maintain a given posture in static and dynamic situations to be able to stay level and stable.
- co-ordination: ability to link all parts of a movement into one efficient smooth movement and the ability to be able to control the body during physical activity.
- reaction time: time taken for the body, or part of the body, to respond to a stimulus. Is divided into two specific areas:
- simple reaction time: were someone must react to something as it happens. Eg, sprinter reacting to the sound of a gun at the start of the race.
- choice reaction time: someone is able to size up a situation then decide when they are going to react. Eg, footballer deciding the best time to make a tackle.
S - pecificity: training that is particularly suited to a particular sport or activity.
P - rogression: where training increases gradually as the body adjusts to the increased demands being made on it.
O - verload: making the body work harder than normal in order to improve it.
R - eversibility: long periods of rest will lead to decline in fitness and all gains made will be lost. This is why it is important to keep rests short.
T - edium: don't make it boring, vary the types and methods of training.
Frequency - how often you train.
Intensity - how hard you train
Time - when and how long you train for
Type - decide which methods of training you use
Methods of training
Circuit training - improves muscular strength
- easy to set up
Disadvantages - not suitable for one person
Continuous training - involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. Improves cardiovascular fitness.
Cross training - using another sport or activity to improve fitness.
- raises heart rate and body temperature
- prepares muscles, ligaments and joints for the activity
- practicing techniques and skills that will be used during the performance
2. Main activity
- fitness training: linked to repeated technique work
- skill development - drills or team practices
- modified or conditional games
3. Warm down
- light exercises to remove carbon dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products
- gentle stretching to prevent later muscle stiffness.
Endomorph: pear-shaped, wide hips, wide shoulders, a lot of fat on body, arms and thighs. When fit, ideal for weightlifting, wrestling.
Ectomorphs: narrow shaped, thin faced, little fat or muscle, tall. Ideal for basket ball.
Mesomorphs: wedge-shaped, wide shoulders, narrow hips, muscular. Ideal for sprinters.
Skill related 2
Power: combination of the maximum amount of strength with the maximum amount of speed. Closely linked to explosive strength.
Speed: ability to move all parts of the body as quickly as possible. Combination of reaction time and movement time.