Particles In Atoms
ALPHA RADIATION - a helium nucleus, slow and heavy, strongly ionising stopped by paper and skin
BETA RADIATION - an electron, light andfast, moderatley ionisng, stopped by thin metal
GAMMA RADIATION- an elctromagnetic wave, no mass and very fast, weakly ionisng and stopped by thick lead/concrete
POSITRON RADIATION - positrons are the antiparticle of an electron - the have the same mass but an opposite charge
NEUTRON RADIATION - neutrons are more penetrating than alpha or beta. They can be absorbed by the nuclei of the substance they pass through. Absorbing a nuclei makes a nucleus radioactive, which then emit alpha beta or gamma radiation. They are indirectly ionising. They are absorbed best by light nuclei. Hydrogen-rich materials are used to make neutronradiation shielding. Neutron absorption often makes nuclei emit gamma radiation so thick lead can be added to neutron radiation shielding to shield against the gamma radiation.
Charged particles are detected by trail's of ions left behind. However neutrons are detected by looking for nucleaur decays from the nuclei they make radioactive.