OCR Biology B6 Processes

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Viral Reproduction (B6)

  • 1. The virus attaches to a specific cell called the host cell
  • 2.  The genetic material from the virus is inserted into the host cell where it enters the nucleus to make mRNA
  • 3.  New viruses are made using genetic material inside the host cell and the genetic material from the virus. This happens in the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • 4. The cell splits open, allowing the viruses to leave but killing the host cell.
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Genetic engineering (B6)

  • 1. The desired gene is identified.
  • 2. The gene is removed from the DNA using restriction enzymes and then isolated.
  • 3. A section of DNA is removed from a bacterial plasmid using different restriction enzymes.
  • 4. DNA ligase is used to join the isolated gene to the bacterial plasmid to make a recombinant plasmid.
  • 5. The recombinant plasmid is inserted back into the bacterium which becomes a transgenic bacterium.
  • 6. Many transgenic bacteria are cloned as the bacterium asexually reproduces rapidly through binary fission.
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DNA fingerprinting (B6)

  • 1. A blood or cell sample is isolated.
  • 2. The DNA is extracted from the blood or cell sample.
  • 3. Restriction enzymes are used to fragment the DNA.
  • 4. The DNA fragments are placed on a gel.
  • 5. The fragments undergo gel electrophoresis whereby they are separated by an electric current.
  • 6. The banding of the DNA fingerprinting can be matched.
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